_Econ Article Presentation

_Econ Article Presentation - Heights and Living Standards...

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Heights and Living Standards of English Workers During the Early Years of Industrialization, 1770- 1815 Stephen Nicolas and Richard H. Steckel Alexander Raymond Lauren Reusink Katherine Mosele
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Measures of Living Standards Historians have used changes in real wage to determine the standard of living of English workers pre-1820s era An alternative method employed by Roderick Floud, Kenneth Wachter, and Annabel Gregory was anthropometrics.
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What is Anthropometrics? An index of health and nutrition “Height for age, the change in height between successive ages (velocity or rate of growth), the age at which final height is reached, and final adult height ‘reflect accurately the state of a nation’s public heath and the average nutritional status of its citizens’”(940). Note: height is a net rather than gross measure of nutrition because it depends on the nutrition available for physical growth after the claims made by body maintenance needs, illness, and work. Yet, “average height has been found to b highly correlated with the log of per capita income in a sample of developed and developing countries” (940).
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Nicholas and Steckel’s Study Sample size of 11,303 English and 5,005 Irish male convicts transported to New South Wales, Australia between 1817 and 1840 Source of info: an indent – a document that contained complete info on each convict including age, gender, occupation, conjugal status, literacy status, town and county of birth, crime and previous convictions, as well as height accompanied each convict ship.
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Accuracy and Reliability of Data Height was typically recorded to the nearest ¼ inch and the frequency distribution shows little signs of “heaping” which would indicate careless procedure or a disinterest in accuracy.
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Why look at convicts’ height data? An alternate source of English male heights would be the British army records. But these are contaminated by minimum-height standards that erode the lower tail of the distribution and complicate the interpretation of data.
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Does the same size represent the entire population? Characteristics of the sample compared to those of the entire population. Occupation broken down using Armstrong’s skill-social class scheme: 1) professional, 2) intermediate, 3) skilled, 4) semiskilled, and 5) unskilled. correlation between 83 occupations identified in the 1841 census & the convict indents was 0.714 suggesting a close match between the sample occupations and those of the English work force.
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Does the same size represent the entire population?
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_Econ Article Presentation - Heights and Living Standards...

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