BIMM 120 Notes for final

BIMM 120 Notes for final - Nutrients Macronutrients: C H O...

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Nutrients Macronutrients: C H O P K N S Ca Fe Micronutrients: Trace metals Nutritional Categories of Organisms Carbon Resources: o Autotroph: CO 2 o Heterotroph: Organic compound Energy Resources: o Phototroph: Light o Chemotroph: Organic compound Organotroph: organic compound Lithotroph: inorganic compound Organisms o Photoautotroph: Algae, Cyanobacteria, plants o Chemoautotroph: bacteria o Photoheterotroph: some algae, some bacteria o Chemoheterotroph: Bacteria, human, other animals, fungi, protozoa Types of Media Complex Media: it’s all mix up together like ground beef. It’s very poorly defined. o It’s like we know where it is from, but we don’t know what is exactly contain and in it. It’s not specific Synthetic Media: it’s very well defined. It’s very specific and know where is exactly located and what is in it. o Ex: Azotobacter medium (containing Mannitol, K2HPO4, MgSO4*7H2O, FeSO4*7H2O) Enriched media: It’s complex media + synthetic media mixed together (plus other constituents) o Ex: Blood Agar (containing blood and other added ingredients) Selective Media: favors growth of one organisms over another
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Differential: distinguishes biochemical differences between species that grow equally well. MacConkey Agar Blood Agar Durham tube Bacterial colonies/ Fungal colonies Selective or Differential? Both selective and differential Differential Differential Selective Complex, synthetic or enriched? Synthetic Enriched Synthetic Usage -Select for gram negative bacteria -Identify lactose fermenters -Identify ability to hydrolyze blood (beta, alpha, gamma) -It is important because that determine if you have a sore throat or not -Fermentation vs detect production of gas - Bacterial and Fungal colonies MacConkey Agar contains crystal violet and bile salt that inhibit growth of gram positive bacteria, lactose as nutrient and neutral red pH indicator to detect fermentation of lactose. o Example: Staphylococcus aureus can’t digest in the MacConkey Agar because it is gram-positive. o Staphylococcus aureus only shows in the nutrient plate. o E.coil will show on both and Salmonella will show on the MacConkey Agar only! Beta-hydrolysis: completely able to digest hemoglobin. Alpha-hydrolysis: partially able to digest hemoglobin. Gamma-hydrolysis: not able to digest hemoglobin. Effect of Oxygen (Environmental requirement) Based on Oxygen Requirement o Facultative: means it can have oxygen and no oxygen. o Anaerobes: No oxygen o Aerobes: High oxygen o Micro-aerophilic: Low oxygen
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Hydroxyl Free Radicals Superoxide radicals Peroxides Oxidizing targets Any organic substances Any molecule in cell Damages cell components Converted to less reactive chemicals by No enzyme can convert this (Most toxic) Superoxide dismutase Catalase and Peroxidase (Least toxic) What are the consequences of free radicals formation?
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course PSYCH PSYCH 179 taught by Professor Koob during the Fall '09 term at UCSD.

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BIMM 120 Notes for final - Nutrients Macronutrients: C H O...

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