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Week10_Section_Nhat_full - Nhat Pham BIMM120...

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Nhat Pham  BIMM120 [email protected] 12/4/09 OH: Mon 5pm-7pm Bonner 3126 Handout #10 DISCUSSION 1. Compare and contrast  E.coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia. Common properties: - Gram negative -  Facultative anaerobes - Rod bacteria - Most bacteria in this group live in the GI tract - Most have simple nutrient requirements - Most can be classified by fermentation products Differences: E.coli Salmonella Shigella Vibrio Yersinia Location GI tract GI tract GI tract GI tract Rats Fleas Humans: lymph  nodes, blood, lung  Patholog y Acquire virulence  genes from  Shigella Diarrhea Hemolytic Uremic  Syndrome Urinary tract infection Gastroenteriti s -> Diarrhea Typhoid fever Dysentery (diarrhea  with blood & mucus in  stool) Hemolytic Uremic  Syndrome (break down  red blood cells, renal  failure) Cholera : Diarrhe a +  water  loss Zoonotic:  transferred from  animals to humans Bubonic,  Septicemia,  Pneumonia 2. What mechanism does  Helicobacter pylori  use to survive in the acidic stomach?  Describe how  Helicobacter pylori  cause gastric ulcer. H. pylori  makes urease, an enzyme that breaks down urea (from protein digestion) into  CO 2  and ammonia (NH 3 ). Ammonia is basic, and can neutralize the acidic environment  of the stomach. H. pylori  colonizes and grows in the mucus layer of the stomach, causing:  - thinning of the mucus layer that allows acid to attack the endothelium - inflammation leading to destruction of the endothelium 1
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Nhat Pham  BIMM120 [email protected] 12/4/09 OH: Mon 5pm-7pm Bonner 3126 Handout #10 -> The end result is gastric, duodenal ulcer, or adenocarcinoma (cancer of the  soft tissues) 3. Define: endotoxin, exotoxin, enterotoxin. What is a superantigen? Exotoxin:  toxins created and excreted by bacteria into the environment. Endotoxin:  structural components of bacteria that are released when bacteria are lysed. Ex: LPS (Lipid A), teichoic acid Enterotoxin:  exotoxins that are released by bacteria in the intestine Superantigen  is a type of exotoxin that can bind to and activate many T cells resulting in  a mass release of cytokines. This cytokine storm leads to systemic inflammation, or 
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