26-schemas - Memory VI Schemas and concepts Overview How is...

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Memory VI Schemas and concepts
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Overview How is knowledge structured? Concepts and categories Economy and generalization What is a schema? Knowledge organization Effects on memory What are concepts? Feature-based theories Similarity-based theories
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Overview How is knowledge structured? Concepts and categories Economy and generalization What is a schema? Knowledge organization Effects on memory What are concepts? Feature-based theories Similarity-based theories
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Concepts and categories Grouping of objects and events … but why categorize?
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Concepts and categories Yak Yak Does it lay eggs? How many brains does it have? Can it dance the tango? Why categorize?
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Economy black brown “Rover” “dog” 4 legs barks furry teeth smells white “Spot” “Killer” Common info stored once Specific info
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Generalization “dog” 4 legs barks furry teeth smells “dog” “Without concepts, mental life would be chaotic” Smith & Medin (1981) Generalization! Apply old knowledge to new situations
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Knowledge is structured Importance of Structure Economy Encoding of general structure Generalization Apply old knowledge to new situations
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Categories are structured dog 4 legs tail barks smells fur cat meows lazy animal skin moves breathes yak koala sea cucumber Collins & Quillian (1969)
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Hierarchical organization animal fish bird pigeon canary salmon shark has skin moves breathes has wings can fly has feathers has fins has gills can swim sings yellow coos grey bites nasty pink edible Collins & Quillian (1969)
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Semantic networks: evidence Verification of semantic knowledge Collins & Quillian (1969) animal bird canary has skin feathers sings Canaries Can sing? Feathers? Have skin? 1305 ms 1395 ms 1480 ms
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Semantic priming dog 4 legs tail barks smells fur cat meows lazy “Spreading activation” Prime Just look at it Probe Lexical decision XXXXX DOG CAT HAT DOG DOG 904 ms 855 ms 940 ms Faster recognition of related words Meyer & Schvanaveldt (1971)
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Category structure
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course PSYCH 85 211 taught by Professor Theissen during the Spring '10 term at Carnegie Mellon.

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26-schemas - Memory VI Schemas and concepts Overview How is...

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