34-Logic - Higher Cognition I Higher Cognition I Logic...

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Unformatted text preview: Higher Cognition I Higher Cognition I Logic Logic Higher than what? Higher than what? Man had always assumed that he was more intelligent than dolphins because he had achieved so muchthe wheel, New York, wars, and so onwhile all the dolphins had ever done was muck about in the water having a good time the dolphins believed themselves to be more intelligent than man for precisely the same reasons. Douglas Adams Big brains Big brains Relatively big brains Relatively big brains Encephalization quotient Brain weight relative to body weight Holloway (1996) Reasoning and Higher Cognition Reasoning and Higher Cognition Man is a rational animal Rationality is a defning human trait What is rationality? Normative theory How should we reason? Descriptive theory How do we reason? Formal logic Probability theory Psychology! ? ? Overview Overview Why is logic important? Logic as a normative theory of reasoning Logic as a basis for cognition Do we reason logically? The Wason card selection task Theories of adaptive reasoning Should we reason logically? Is logic the correct normative theory? Overview Overview Why is logic important? Logic as a normative theory of reasoning Logic as a basis for cognition Do we reason logically? The Wason card selection task Theories of adaptive reasoning Should we reason logically? Is logic the correct normative theory? Theory of logic Theory of logic Deductive logic as a normative theory Rules for drawing logical conclusions If these are true then so are these Premises General knowledge New information Conclusions Inferences about the world RULES Rules are truth-preserving Conditional inferences Conditional inferences Logic defnes valid conclusions Conclusions true iF premises are true...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course PSYCH 85 211 taught by Professor Theissen during the Spring '10 term at Carnegie Mellon.

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34-Logic - Higher Cognition I Higher Cognition I Logic...

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