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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 2 Topics Matter physical vs. chemical properties common states Coulomb Potential Energy EP = q1q2/40r Isotopes abundance Coulomb Potential Energy
EP = q 1 q 2 40r
q1 and q2: charges on particle 1 and particle 2 r: distance between charges q1 + r q2 - Isotope Abundance
Example: Two isotopes of C are prevalent. What are the % abundance of each?
12 6 C : 12.00 amu 13 6 C : 13.00 amu Average of these two = 12.01 amu 12.01 = 12.00(x) + 13.00(1-x) Lecture 3 Topics
Atomic Structure Electromagnetic Radiation Light is a particle and a wave diffraction blackbody radiation photoelectric effect deBroglie Electromagnetic Radiation Color of light described by: , wavelength (m) , frequency (Hz, s-1) E, energy (J) E = hc/ = hv Wave-Particle Duality of Light EK = hv - Duality of Matter
= h m .v deBroglie unites particle-wave duality Heisenberg Uncertainty x p h 2 Lecture 4 Topics H Atom quantized states, discrete E levels calculating energies for transitions Energy Levels for one-electron systems En = -Z2hRH/n2 Atomic Orbitals quantum numbers; n, l, ml H Atom : Energy Levels En = hRH [ 1 1 2 - n2 n1 2 RH = 3.28984 x 1015 Hz En = -Z2hRH n2 Atomic Orbitals described by quantum numbers n, principal, E l, angular, shape ml, orbital angular, orientation Lecture 5 Topics Many electron Atoms En = -Zeff2hRH n2 Zeff = effective nuclear charge Electronic Configurations ex. Mg: [Ne]3s2 Ga3+: [Ar]3d10 Atomic Orbital Energies
En = -Zeff2hRH n2 depends on Zeff and n Zeff < Z, so En increases Zeff depends on shielding Electronic Configurations 3d 4d 5d 6d occupying d orbitals causes their energies to decrease Lecture 6 Topics Periodic Trends Atomic Radii radius of neutral atoms Ionic Radii radius of ions Ionization Energy, I energy required to remove e Electron Affinity, Eea energy released in adding e- Atomic and Ionic Radii trends predicted by Zeff anions: larger than parent cations: smaller than parent Ionization and Electron Affinity
X(g) X+(g) + e-(g) Ionization E = E (X+) - E(X) * In require more E than I1 X(g) + e-(g) X-(g) Eea = E (X) - E (X-) Eea = energy released when e- is added Periodic Trend Summary http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/PERIODIC_TRENDS.jpg http://www.cwu.edu/~cots/images/periodic_table.jpg Lecture 7 Topics Types of Compounds Organic vs. Inorganic Molecular - usually two non-metals Ionic - usually metal and non-metal Polyatomic Ions - NH4+ NO3- ClO Nomenclature oxoanions, ionic compounds Types of Compounds Organic Molecular -shares e- to form bond Inorganic Ionic - electrostatics form bond Some Polyatomic Ions Ionic Compounds: Nomenclature
FeCl2: iron (II) chloride Cation named with the element name followed by cation charge, if needed Anion element stem with suffix -ide ex. O2- = oxide, S2- = sulfide Lecture 8 Topics Nomenclature inorganic molecular compounds organic molecular compounds Moles Avogadro's Constant Molar masses Organics depends on number of carbons Inorganics further left = element name further right prefix indicates # suffix -ide PCl3: phosphorus trichloride Molecular Compounds: Nomenclature Moles and Molar Mass 1 mole = 6.0221 x 1023 things Molar Mass of C = 12.01 g/mol - converts between mass and moles Lecture 9 Topics % Composition Empirical vs Molecular formulas Mixtures Heterogenous Homogeneous Molarity concentration dilutions Empirical vs. Molecular Empirical: ratio of # of atoms of each element Molecular: # of atoms in each molecule or formula unit Ex. -carotene C5H7 is the empirical formula. C40H56 is the molecular formula. Mixtures
Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Homogeneous Solutions
Solvent = larger component of solution Solute = dissolved substance Molarity
Quantifies the amount of solute in a volume of solvent (units: mol/L) Dilutions
cinitialVinitial = cfinalVfinal ...
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