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MAJOR TERMS - MAJOR TERMS TOPICS THEMES(75 PTS 35(plus few...

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MAJOR TERMS, TOPICS, & THEMES (75 PTS.): 35 (plus few in notes): General info./definition Who? What? When? Where? Why? Significance Goals of Explorers 5 reasons for European exploration: 1. Desire for new trade routes to Asia 2. Emergence of large, consolidated nation states 3. Technological advances 4. Religious changes (Protestant Reformation) 5. European population growth Columbus = sponsored by Spain for western route to Asia (central figure in exposing world to Christianity) Inspired followers Ponce de Leon, Hernando Cortes, Francisco Pizarro, Francisco Coronado Spanish expansion o Building empire o Extract precious gems/metals British colonies o 1589 – Sir Walter Raleigh founded Roanoke o 1607 – The Virginia Company founded Jamestown o English establish successful colonies quickly most (~ 90%) native american population died out upon their arrival = fields already cleared, crops planted, etc. Jamestown 1 st permanent colony for England in New World Founded by Virginia Company (a joint-stock co.) in 1607 Before now all colonies financed by crown – Jamestown = private venture (or private enterprise) o Joint-stock Company = businesses in which investors pooled capital for specific purposes, such as conducting trade and founding colonies People went hoping to find gold (get rich like Spaniards) 1 st year only 38 of 105 original survive until spring Virginia Co. decides needs new leader everyone gets an envelope to open when arrive = John Smith o Ironic – caused so much trouble on ship spent most time in chains, scheduled to hang when arrive
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o Only 12 people die that winter o He’s captured by Pocahontas’ tribe o 1609 – goes back to England 1609 = 500 colonists 1610 = 100 colonists “The Starving Time” Settler executed b/c killed wife and ate her Summer 1610 – board ships to leave but get to mouth of James River, see supply ship, return to colony 1616 – colonist still haven’t made any money o Saved by John Rolfe discover blend of tobacco Europeans really like = saves Jamestown (& Virginia Co.) Later marries Pocahontas Roanoke Founded in 1585 on Roanoke Island (coast of present day North Carolina) = 1 st English colony Enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh o Goal – establish permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony 1 st group settlers returned within a year 2 nd group (w/ women/kids) went in 1587 Supply ships sent 1588 failed to arrive Help finally arrived 1590 but not a soul found o Called the “lost colony” b/ still don’t know what happened Central Difference in Colonies Colonies begin to “come of age” – 1669 (more people leaving England for America) North industrialized faster than the south The Middle Colonies (Back Country): o Mostly Presbyterians and many Irish, Scotts, etc (believe different than New England didn’t get along) o Many move to “back country” = through ~100 miles super-dense pine forest go back further clears out (easier to settle) Isolated from society
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