MBIO 4406 EXAM REVIEW

MBIO 4406 EXAM REVIEW - MBIO 4406: GENETICS OF...

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MBIO 4406: GENETICS OF MICROORGANISMS EXAM REVIEW Recombinant DNA Technology: DNA sequencing technologies (2) ο 1. Isolate DNA and denature the clone DNA fragment (make single-stranded) ο 2. Create a population of DNA molecules that terminate at successive bases 1970: 2 basic DNA sequencing approaches ο Chemical cleavage of full-length DNA ο In vitro synthesis of a population of molecules ο Incorporated a dideoxy analog in the reaction dATP vs. ddATP New technology Pyrosequencing = real detection of pyrophosphate release during DNA synthesis Recombinant DNA Technologies: Uses ο 1. Deduce amino acid sequence of enzymes polypeptide 3-dimensional protein structure protein engineering ο 2. Study regularly sequences ο 3. Comparative sequence analysis = Molecular Systematics Good Science Pick an interesting biological problem to study, THEN select appropriate methods
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UNIT 2: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS The Structure of Nucleic Acids: Genetic material living in cells = Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ο Individual subunits of DNA = Nucleotides (3 parts) 1. Organic, nitrogen-containing base (pyrimidine = cytosine & uracil or thymine) 2. Pentose sugar 3. Phosphate group Organic, nitrogen-containing bases: Pyrimidines Purines Modified (or “funny”) bases DNA = primarily methylated bases Base + Pentose Sugar = Nucleoside Pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides Purine deoxyribonucleosides Nucleoside + Phosphate Group = Nucleotide Deoxycytodine 5-monophosphate & Deoxyadenosine 5-monophosphate or deoxycyclic acid or deoxydenytic acid DNA = 2’ – deoxyribose A, G, C, T RNA = ribose A, G, C, U Polydeoxynucleotide = single-strand of DNA Phosphate group between adjacent nucleotides joins 3’ carbon of one pentose to 5’ carbon of other (adjacent) pentose 5’, 3’ =Stre Phosphodiester Bond Avery, Macleod, & McCarty (1944) experiment:
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Streptococcus “transforming principle” ο Overall process = Transformation ο 1944: published a landmark paper proposed that DNA, NOT protein are actually the genetic material in cells Irwin Chargaff (early 1950s) In any given DNA sample, the amount of adenine ALWAYS equals the amount of thymine and the amount of guanine is ALWAYS equal to the amount of cytosine G+C content varied among different species (20-80%)
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course MBIO 4404 taught by Professor Moss during the Fall '10 term at Texas Tech.

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MBIO 4406 EXAM REVIEW - MBIO 4406: GENETICS OF...

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