MBIO 4310 - MBIO 4310: INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY 08/27/2009

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MBIO 4310: INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY 08/27/2009 http://bilimoria.biol.ttu.edu/VIROLCLASS User ID: ugvirol Password: penta12 virology@ttu.edu 09/01/2009 Age-dependent tissue tropism Polio is a virus that causes diarrhea Children susceptible to virus -if exposed early enough, just diarrhea, no paralysis As hygiene improved, polio exposure delayed leading to paralysis HIV: retroviridae Herpes: herpesviridae - CytoMegaloVirus causes sever congenital defects - Chicken Pox - Epstein-Barr virus causes Mononucleosis Influenza: -Viral envelope has H (hemagglutinate) and N (neuraminidase) proteins -genome in 8 unique fragments, random mixing causes Antigenic Shift Antigenic Drift- is slow change in proteins of virus Antigenic Shift- Sudden dramatic change HPV: -causes cancer Ebola: filoviridae - Hantavirus -Carried by mice SARS: corona virus - Rabies: rabidovirus - Rotavirus: reoviridae -causes enteritis (diarrhea) Rhinovirus: -common cold West Nile Virus: -Birds (crow family in particular) -Yellow fever virus in family arbovirus=ARthropod BOrne VIRUS *******What do viruses do for a living?*******
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09/03/2009 Edward Jenner 1798 -smallpox vaccine Louis Pasteur 1885 -rabies vaccine -germ theory of disease Germs: seem with light microscope; cannot pass through porcelain filters Dmitri Iwanowsky 1892: -TMV- ground up infected leaves, passed through filter, applied to healthy leaves expecting nothing to happen. Disease happened: filterable germs! a new concept! Disbelief even though reproducable Beijerinck 1899: filterable agent causes TMV, saw nothing in microscope, championed new concept Contagium vivum fluidum--ultramicroscopic filterable viruses--ultrafilterable viruses--viruses Peyton Rous 1911L viruses cause malignant tumors in chickens--1966 Nobel Prize in Medicine Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV)-retrovirus bacteriophages discovered Max Theiler: 1927: Yellow fever: filterable virus 1937: Yellow fever vaccine 1951 Nobel Prize in Medicine Wendell M. Stanley 1935: Crystallized TMV 1946 Nobel Prize Showed TMV was made of protein, phosphate "contaminant" Bawden 1937/8: Phosphate in TMV due to nucleic acid TMV is protein and nucleic acid
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1940s Electron Microscopy Ultracentrifugation permitted rigorous physicochemical studies on virus particles Delbrick/Luria: 1-step growth experiment--1969 Nobel Prize in Medicine Hershey: DNA is genetic material (expt. done in phages) 1950s: Lambda phage and Lysogeny--Lwoff wins Nobel Prize 1965 09/08/2009 Herd Immunity -If a critical percentage (80-90%) of a population is immune to an agent, the rest of the "herd" is protected -Disease is not transmitted -Possible to eradicate disease (e.g. smallpox) Gadjusek: Kuru disease - Nobel Prize 1976 Blumberg: Hepatitis B virus (1965) - Nobel Prize 1976 Hepatitis A transmitted fecal-oral (acute infection) REN: abner, nathans, smith Nobel Prize 1978
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MBIO 4310 - MBIO 4310: INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY 08/27/2009

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