ap07_frq_World_History

ap07_frq_World_History - AP® World History 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® World History 2007 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Note: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), which are used in some world history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-8. The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet. This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that: • Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. • Uses all of the documents. • Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. • Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view. • Explains the need for at least one additional type of document. You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents. 1. Using the documents, analyze Han and Roman attitudes toward technology. Identify one additional type of document and explain briefly how it would help your analysis. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS HAN DOCUMENTS Document 1 Source: Han government official, writing to local officials concerning flood prevention, early second century B.C.E. I request that you establish water conservation offices in each district and staff them with people who are experienced in the ways of water. There should be one high official and one deputy with just enough workers to meet the need. For the area on both sides of each river select one person as chief hydraulic engineer. Order inspections of the waterways, the walls of the cities and their suburbs, the dikes and rivers, canals and pools, and government buildings and cottages, and supply enough workers to those who are to carry out the repair work in each district. Document 2 Source: Huan Guan, Han government official, Discourses on Salt and Iron, first century B.C.E. In earlier times workers were allowed to do both foundry work and salt-boiling as long as they reported the work and paid a tax. Tools manufactured by individual families to do this work were well-made. Today the iron tools that workers are required to use are produced by the state using convict labor; these tools are often crude and not very functional. In previous times the tools manufactured by workers for their own use and for sale were of excellent quality. Now that the state has monopolized the salt and iron trades, most of the tools provided to the workers are hard and brittle and the responsible government officials are often not available to take complaints. Good implements are hard to come by. Salt and iron are now sold at very high prices by the state and many common people cannot afford to buy either. Some of the poorest peasants now have no choice but to till the soil with wooden plows and cannot afford salt to season their food. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Document 3 Source: Huan Tan, upper-class Han philosopher, New Discourses, about 20 C.E. Fuxi* invented the pestle and the mortar. Later on, the pestle and the mortar were cleverly improved in such a way that the whole weight of the body could be used, thus increasing the efficiency ten times. In time, the power of animals — donkeys, mules, oxen and horses — was added. Later, water power was also applied, and the benefit was increased a hundredfold. *Fuxi is a mythological wise emperor. Document 4 Source: History of the Early Han Dynasty (government-sponsored history), about 200 C.E. Tu Shih was appointed governor of Nanyang [about 31 C.E.]. He was a generous man and his policies were peaceful. He destroyed evil-doers and established the dignity of his office. Good at planning, Tu Shih loved the common people and wished to save their labor. He invented a water-powered blowing-engine for the casting of iron agricultural implements that allowed people to enjoy great benefit for little labor. His invention has been widely adopted and used. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS ROMAN DOCUMENTS Document 5 Source: Cicero, upper-class Roman political leader, On Duty, first century B.C.E. Now, as to which crafts and other means of earning a living are suitable for a gentleman to practice and which are degrading, we have been taught more or less the following: Vulgar and unbecoming to a gentleman are all the jobs hired workers take on, whose labor is purchased rather than their skill. All craftsmen spend their time in vulgar occupations; no workshop can have anything enlightening about it. Document 6 Source: Plutarch, Greek-born Roman citizen and high official, describing second-century B.C.E. Roman political leader Gaius Gracchus, first century C.E. He was especially anxious about road building, paying attention to utility as well as to that which was beneficial to grace and beauty. For the roads were carried straight through the country without wavering, and were paved with quarried stone, and made solid with masses of tightly packed sand. Hollows were filled up and bridges were built across whatever wintry streams or ravines cut the roads. And both sides were an equal and parallel height with the result that the road for its entire course had a level and beautiful appearance. Besides these things, he measured the whole road mile by mile and set up stone columns as distance indicators. He also placed other stones on either side of the road at lesser intervals so that it would be easier for those who had horses to mount them from the stones without requiring a groom to help. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Document 7 Source: Seneca, upper-class Roman philosopher and adviser to Emperor Nero, first century C.E. I do not believe that tools for the crafts were invented by wise men. The question of whether the hammer or the tongs came first does not seem important to me. Both were invented by someone with a mind that was nimble and sharp, but not great or elevated. Document 8 Source: Frontinus, Roman general, governor of Britain, and water commissioner for the city of Rome, first century C.E. All the aqueducts reach the city at different elevations. Six of these streams flow into covered containers, where they lose their sediment. Their volume is measured by means of calibrated scales. The abundance of water is sufficient not only for public and private uses and applications but truly even for pleasure. The water is distributed to various regions inside and outside the city, to basins, fountains and public buildings, and to multiple public uses. Compare such numerous and indispensable structures carrying so much water with the idle pyramids, or the useless but famous works of the Greeks. END OF PART A © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Part B (Suggested planning and writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 Directions: You are to answer the following question. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your essay. Write an essay that: • • • • Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence. Addresses all parts of the question. Uses world historical context to show change over time and/or continuities. Analyzes the process of change over time and/or continuity. 2. Analyze major changes and continuities in the formation of national identities in ONE of the regions listed below from 1914 to the present. Be sure to include evidence from specific countries in the region selected. Middle East Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan Africa © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 2007 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Part C (Suggested planning and writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 Directions: You are to answer the following question. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your essay. Write an essay that: • • • • Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence. Addresses all parts of the question. Makes direct, relevant comparisons. Analyzes relevant reasons for similarities and differences. 3. Within the period from 1450 to 1800, compare the processes (e.g., political, social, economic) of empire building in the Spanish Empire with the empire-building processes in ONE of the following. The Ottoman Empire OR The Russian Empire STOP END OF EXAM © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -8- ...
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