215Ch48 - Bio 215 Chapter 48 Nervous systems Ch 48: 1...

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Bio 215 Chapter 48 Nervous systems Ch 48: Nervous Systems Lecture notes Some of the goals for this chapter include: 1
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Bio 1B Chapter 44 Nervous systems 6) Draw and describe the functions of the nervous system cells 6) define and describe impulses and action potentials 6) describe the chemical and electrical communications that occur at synapses 6) Describe the different types of nervous systems that invertebrates have 6) describe the nervous system of the human 6) outline all the structures and their function of the human brain The endocrine and nervous systems of animals often cooperate and interact to maintain homeostasis and control behavior. The roles these two systems play are as follows Nervous System Endocrine System Complexity More structurally complex:can integrate vast amounts of information and stimulate a wide range of responses Less Structurally complex Structure System of neurons that branch throughout the body endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream where they are carried to the target organ communication Neurons conduct electrical signals directly to and form specific targets: allows fine pinpoint control As chemical messengers, hormones circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream: exposes most body cells to the hormone and only target cells with receptors respond Response Time Fast transmission of nerve impulses up to 100m/sec May take minutes, hours or days time for hormones to be produced, carried by blood to target organ, and for response to occur 6 Nervous systems functions: an overview 3 overlapping functions: C. Sensory input :conduction of signals form sensory receptors to integration centers of the nervous system C. Integration : information form sensory receptors is interpreted and associated with appropriate responses of the body C. Motor output: conduction of signals form processing center to effector cells that actually carry out the body's response to stimuli(muscle cells, gland cells) C. These functions in both parts of the nervous system 3. Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord: responsible for integration of sensory input and associating stimuli with appropriate motor output. 3. Peripheral nervous system (PNS): consists of the network of nerves extending into different parts of the body that carry sensory input to the CNS and motor output away form the CNS 6 Neurons and supporting cells C. Neurons : cells specialized for transmitting chemical and electrical signals form one location in the body to another 3. large cell body :contains cytoplasm and other organelles c. mainly cell body are in CNS 3. two types of fiberlike extensions( processes ) that increase the distance over which the cells can conduct messages c. Dendrites convey signals to the cell body, short, numerous and extensively branched c. Axons : conduct impulses away form the cell body, long single processes
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2010 for the course BIOLOGY BIOLOGy taught by Professor Hued during the Spring '10 term at Eastern Oregon.

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215Ch48 - Bio 215 Chapter 48 Nervous systems Ch 48: 1...

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