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Lecture 4 - o1.30

Lecture 4 - o1.30 - Subsistence(continued Hunters Gatherers...

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Subsistence (continued) Hunters & Gatherers - Hunters & gatherers (H&G) o Example The !Kung people o Idea that there is no private ownership everyone shares! o Doesn’t matter whether the person works or not… everyone gets some o Land & animals & water jointly owned among the group - 18 th and 19 th centuries Europeans thought of hunters & gatherers as savage [animal like], competitive, and brutish [violently selfish] - Thomas Hobbes o 1648 “Leviathan” o Without a strong ruler (such as a king) life would be savage, brutish, and short o Claimed that people are naturally selfish and greedy & that people needed someone to control them o Human nature was selfish and greedy people need powerful rulers Rulers who would make sure that they would behave - Adam Smith o 1776 wrote a book called “the wealth of nations” o Like Hobbes, smith claimed that people was greedy and that people were naturally competitive o Had a different solution than Hobbes o Smith thought that if they had a highly complex market economy based on [supposedly] “fair” rules of competition would hold people’s freed in check - Hunters & gatherers (H&G) o Traditionally didn’t have powerful leaders or rulers o They might have elders who have influence, but they do not have the power to punish o H&G do not have complex market economy Do not trade Don’t recognize “private property” in a western sense o Westerners assume they are primitive Turned out to be an error until the mid 20 th [1940’s – 1950’s] century o Example of war line up and shoot arrows & spears.. war ends when one person gets injured or if it rains Usually no death - Marshall Sahlins “The Original Affluent Society” o These H&G societies were not torn apart by violence – they were harmonious – they usually shared o Competition is a learned value – not “human nature” o Insulting the meat A man must not boast about his kill Hunters must not brag about a good hunt in !Kung society He must belittle the kill
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