ExamMajorQ2 - Major Essay(50 Points 2 The Protestant Reformation of the 16th Century forever altered the spiritual outlook of Western Civilization

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Unformatted text preview: Major Essay (50 Points) 2) The Protestant Reformation of the 16th Century forever altered the spiritual outlook of Western Civilization. Yet it also had far-reaching political, social, economic, and intellectual ramifications. Using detailed and specific information from the class lectures, the videos, the textbook, and MyHistoryLab describe the causes and consequences of the Protestant Reformation on Europe beginning with a detailed description of its origins. Who were the primary characters involved? What were their thoughts and beliefs? What was the reaction of the various social classes to these ideas and how did they act upon them? What was the response of the Catholic Church in the short and long-term? Be detailed and specific in your answer. ***Causes-Why did it happen? -dissatisfation with the church--> many devout christians were finding the church's growing emphasis on rituals unhelpful for personal salvation. Since more people were congregating in towns and cities, they could obsersve for themselves and discuss their concerns w/ each other. - papacy had lost much of its spiritual influence b/c of the increasing tendency toward secularization. popes and bishops were acting more like kings and princes rather than spiritual guides. -popes bought and sold high offices, and sold indulgences --led to increasing wealth of church and abuse of power. -clergy became corrupt and immoral and this was becoming very evident to people. ....calls for reform begin. -people were lead by the prescription : "one king, one faith, one law". Religion of the ruler was to be the religion of the subjects. When princes started suddenly converting, the state was in disarray. ***Primary Characters - and their thoughts and beliefs: John Calvin. --Calvinism came to France after he began reforming church in Geneva. John Calvin concentrated his efforts on large provincial towns and had followers among the middle ranks of urban society: merchants, traders and artisans. Also found an audience among aristrocratic women, who later converted their husbands and sons. --Henry II died--his wife Catherine de Medicis's oldest son Francis II was only 15, so he allowed the Guises to dominate offices of state. They controlled the army and the church. Guises were staunchly Catholic. --Bourbons --protestants, and enemies of Guises -- Bourbon Duc de Conde was sentenced to death by Guises, but before the day of his execution Francis II died, and guises lost power. --Incident with Conde, caused both Protestants and Catholics to raise armies: in 1562, the first battle of French Wars of Religion began. --Henry of Navarre -- originally protestant, switched to Catholicism and was a very strong ruler. Proclaimed the Edict of Nantes --granted limited toleration to Heugenots, but it was atleast somewhat of a compromise. ***Reaction of the various social classes to these ideas, and how they acted upon them: -townspeople wanted the right to practice their faith -clergy wanted the right to preach and make converts -nobility wanted their rightful place in the local government ***Response of Catholic Church ***Consequences: 1. An era of bitter and often violent conflict. 2. Catholics fought Protestants. 3. Protestants fought Protestants. 4. Helped to promote secularism as people got sick of all the fighting. 5. Ended religious unity of Europe forever. 6. Strengthened the state at the expense of the church. 7. The Pope lost power. 8. The Bible was translated into vernacular languages, so more people could read. This led to an increase in education. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2010 for the course HIST 110 taught by Professor Johnbirkenmeier during the Spring '10 term at UMBC.

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