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Unformatted text preview: Minor Essay (25 Points) ***Why did European expansion occur at this time? it occured during the 16th century, b/c : -technological advancements made the journeys possible -demands of commerce provided incentives -Ottoman expansion threatened access to the goods of East on which Europeans had come to rely -spices were really important and valuable: used as a symbol/display of wealth, as perfumes, medicine, etc. Most European goods had little utility in the East, so precious metals like gold and silver had to be used to trade.-soon these precious metals began to dwindle and the sever shortage of them Europe's standard of living and prospect for economic growth, so the search was also to discover new sources of gold. ***Who developed practical and tech. tools/processes that allowed later explorers to reach New World and establish footholds? What were they? The Portuguese. -sailing vessel known as Caravel, techniques of cartography advanced, improved navigational techniques, detailed accnts of voyages, and creation of accurate maps of the African coastline ***Voyages of Individual explorers: Where they went & What they discovered: -Prince Henry the Navigator (Portugal): went to Northern and Western coasts of Africa. -Vasco de Gama(Portugal): rounded Cape of Good Hope and crossed Indian Ocean -Christopher Columbus (Spain): discovered an island of Bahamas and named it San Salvador. -Ferdinand Magellan(Spain): crossed atlantic ocean, resupplied in Brazil, after spending months again on the ship, and a miraculous survival w/o fresh food and water, Magellan became involved in a local war in Philippines and lost his life. Elcano continued his journey, returned home with 18 of 280 crew members and having circumnavigated the earth. ***Role of government, business, and the church in the discovery, exploration, and exploitation of the New World: -Government of Spain financed the journey that led to the discovery. -Church was motivated to convert natives to christianity - ***Summarize the positive and negative impact that the age of discovery had on the religious, political, economic, and social institutions of peoples in both the new and old worlds: <Positive> -new animals and plants, thousands of unknown species of plants were catalogued -new editions to diet like tomatoes, potatoes etc. -the supposed customs of strange lands staged the setting for Sir Thoman More's Utopia <Negative> -Columbian exchange: transfer of microbes, animals and plants . agents of common disease like measles, smallpox and influenza, which Europeans had immunity to, were spread among the natives of the Americas. -tragic arrogance and disregard towards native races -slavery -...
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2010 for the course HIST 110 taught by Professor Johnbirkenmeier during the Spring '10 term at UMBC.
- Spring '10