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Unformatted text preview: Readings (Week 6)
Miller and Spoolman, Chapters 6 & 22 Jacobson, J. "Baby Budget," World Watch, September October, 1989 "Living with the Car: No Room, No Room," The Economist, December 6, 1997 Boyd, J. K. Caballero, and R. D. Simpson "Carving out Some Space: A Guide to Land Preservation Strategies," Resources, Summer 1999, pp. 10-13 http://www.rff.org/rff/documents/rff-resources-136.pdf Determinants of Fertility and Birth Rates
Significant factors that decrease human fertility levels: increase in average level of education & affluence decrease in importance & acceptability of child labor increased urbanization increased cost of raising & educating children increased educational & employment opportunities for women Determinants of Fertility and Birth Rates
Significant factors that decrease human fertility levels (cont'd): higher average age of marriage decreased infant mortality greater availability of private & public pensions greater availability of reliable birth control greater availability of legal abortions change in religious beliefs, traditions, & cultural norms away from encouraging large families Economic Development & Fertility
Dollars per Child MC
Typical Family Produces N Children in Country X Before Economic Development D o N Number of Children Economic Development & Fertility
Dollars per Child MC' MC Typical Family Produces N' Children in Country X After Economic Development o D D' N' N
Number of Children Case Studies
P= 1.331 billion PGR = 0.5% India
P = 1.171 billion PGR = 1.6%
Source: Population Reference Bureau 2009 World Population Data Sheet http://www.prb.org/pdf09/09wpds_eng. pdf Case Study: China
Population Control Program started in early 1970's, intensified in the late 1970's educated people about need for population control, provided family planning advice (e.g., birth-spacing) and methods (e.g., free contraceptives) considered highly extensive and intrusive revolved around the `One Child Certificate' policy initiated in 1979 (Jacobson) Case Study: China population control efforts were effective in reducing growth 1972 Crude Birth Rate Total Fertility Rate 32 5.7 2009 12 1.6 World 2009 20 2.6 health & education levels are better than world average China 2009 Infant Mortality Rate 20 Life Expectancy Adult Literacy Rate 46 73 93% (2007) 69 84% (2007) World 2009 Case Study: China Remaining Problems ... policy is more difficult to implement in rural areas policy has a negative impact on status of women coercive elements are morally unacceptable Case Study: India
Population Control Program started in 1952, world's oldest family planning program suffered from inadequate funding & bureaucratic inefficiency constrained by a democratic political environment hampered by high levels of illiteracy & poverty, low status of women Case Study: India population control efforts have had limited success 1970 Crude Birth Rate Total Fertility Rate 35 5.3 2009 23 2.7 World 2009 20 2.6 health & education levels are below world average India 2009 Infant Mortality Rate 55 Life Expectancy Adult Literacy Rate World 2009 46 65 66% (2007) 69 84% (2007) ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2010 for the course ARE 110 taught by Professor Ebbin,s during the Spring '08 term at UConn.
- Spring '08