lect02-23-10

lect02-23-10 - Readings (Week 6) Miller and Spoolman,...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Readings (Week 6) Miller and Spoolman, Chapters 6 & 22 Jacobson, J. "Baby Budget," World Watch, September October, 1989 "Living with the Car: No Room, No Room," The Economist, December 6, 1997 Boyd, J. K. Caballero, and R. D. Simpson "Carving out Some Space: A Guide to Land Preservation Strategies," Resources, Summer 1999, pp. 10-13 http://www.rff.org/rff/documents/rff-resources-136.pdf Determinants of Fertility and Birth Rates Significant factors that decrease human fertility levels: increase in average level of education & affluence decrease in importance & acceptability of child labor increased urbanization increased cost of raising & educating children increased educational & employment opportunities for women Determinants of Fertility and Birth Rates Significant factors that decrease human fertility levels (cont'd): higher average age of marriage decreased infant mortality greater availability of private & public pensions greater availability of reliable birth control greater availability of legal abortions change in religious beliefs, traditions, & cultural norms away from encouraging large families Economic Development & Fertility Dollars per Child MC Typical Family Produces N Children in Country X Before Economic Development D o N Number of Children Economic Development & Fertility Dollars per Child MC' MC Typical Family Produces N' Children in Country X After Economic Development o D D' N' N Number of Children Case Studies China P= 1.331 billion PGR = 0.5% India P = 1.171 billion PGR = 1.6% Source: Population Reference Bureau 2009 World Population Data Sheet http://www.prb.org/pdf09/09wpds_eng. pdf Case Study: China Population Control Program started in early 1970's, intensified in the late 1970's educated people about need for population control, provided family planning advice (e.g., birth-spacing) and methods (e.g., free contraceptives) considered highly extensive and intrusive revolved around the `One Child Certificate' policy initiated in 1979 (Jacobson) Case Study: China population control efforts were effective in reducing growth 1972 Crude Birth Rate Total Fertility Rate 32 5.7 2009 12 1.6 World 2009 20 2.6 health & education levels are better than world average China 2009 Infant Mortality Rate 20 Life Expectancy Adult Literacy Rate 46 73 93% (2007) 69 84% (2007) World 2009 Case Study: China Remaining Problems ... policy is more difficult to implement in rural areas policy has a negative impact on status of women coercive elements are morally unacceptable Case Study: India Population Control Program started in 1952, world's oldest family planning program suffered from inadequate funding & bureaucratic inefficiency constrained by a democratic political environment hampered by high levels of illiteracy & poverty, low status of women Case Study: India population control efforts have had limited success 1970 Crude Birth Rate Total Fertility Rate 35 5.3 2009 23 2.7 World 2009 20 2.6 health & education levels are below world average India 2009 Infant Mortality Rate 55 Life Expectancy Adult Literacy Rate World 2009 46 65 66% (2007) 69 84% (2007) ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/30/2010 for the course ARE 110 taught by Professor Ebbin,s during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online