Unformatted text preview: Alternatives Approaches for Controlling Pests use genetic engineering develop disease & pest resistant crop varieties to reduce number & quantity of pesticides possible limitations - eventual pest adaptation to new crops, resistance factors may be toxic to beneficial insects & other animals modify cultivation practices practice crop rotation plant trap crops adjust planting times practice inter-cropping & polyculture grow plants to attract predators Alternatives Approaches for Controlling Pests use biological control introduce predators of pests use sterile males to reduce births of pests practice integrated pest management (IPM) - each crop & its pests are evaluated and monitored as parts of an ecological system - suitable cultivation practices & biological control methods are introduced - small amounts of diverse chemicals are used to prevent development of resistance & to avoid killing beneficial insects & predators Pesticide Regulation in the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires EPA to approve commercial pesticides before they can be used EPA also sets a tolerance level for pesticide residues on food while some pesticides have been banned, lack of funding has prevented EPA from adequately testing most pesticides before approval Food Quality Protection Act (1996) is a stronger law requiring new standards for food safety to be met Sustainable Agriculture
sustainable agriculture improves long-term viability & profitability of agriculture by promoting: reduced water use, less waste water generation increased use of soil conservation techniques greater diversity in crops, intelligent use of greenrevolution techniques increased use of organic fertilizers, reduced reliance on chemical fertilizers practice of biological pest control & IPM Nutritional Adequacy undernutrition and malnutrition - diet fails to meet minimum daily caloric intake and/or is low in protein and other nutrients overnutrition - diet is excessive in fats & calories -leads to obesity, heart disease about 17% of developing country population is undernourished or malnourished about 15% of people in developed countries (32% in the U.S.) suffer from overnutrition & waste large amounts of food ...
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- Spring '08
- Biological pest control, Controlling Pests, pesticides possible limitations