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Unformatted text preview: Economics of Climate Change pollution from greenhouse gas emissions a major negative externality issues in cost-benefit analysis - discounting and intergenerational equity, valuation of non-marketed goods and services design of policy instruments - carbon taxes, tradable emission permits
- Harris and Codur (2008) International Efforts to Control Global Warming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) established in 1988 - http://www.ipcc.ch/ Rio Summit (1992) UN Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCC) - http://unfccc.int/2860.php Kyoto Protocol (1997) http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php Copenhagen Accord (2009) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_Accord Role of Ozone Shield (or Ozone Layer)
ozone shield (or ozone layer) filters ultraviolet (UV) radiation before it reaches the lower atmosphere seasonal thinning of the ozone layer resulted at the poles, especially in the southern hemisphere Location of Phenomena Ozone Layer: in stratosphere Greenhouse Effect: in troposphere Natural Gases Involved Ozone Layer:
oxygen O2 ozone O3 Greenhouse Effect:
water H2O carbon dioxide CO2 methane CH4 Human Inputs in Ozone Depletion chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) other stable halogen containing gases (halogens = chlorine, fluorine, & bromine) b) CFCs Possible Consequences of Ozone Depletion increase in skin cancer & cataracts, especially in southern hemisphere decrease in crop yields damage to paints & building materials damage to aquatic systems Comparison Summary
ozone layer where? process? gases? human Inputs? stratosphere filters ultraviolet (UV) radiation O2, O3 ozone shield effect greenhouse stratosphere troposphere filters heat near traps ultraviolet (UV) radiation earth's surface H20, CO2, CH4 CFCs, other CO2, CH4, CFCs, halogen N2O containing gases global warming problems? ozone depletion Solutions to Ozone Depletion phase out use of ozone-depleting chemicals halons, CFCs, methyl chloroform, etc. phase in use of CFC substitutes nonhalogen aerosol propellants, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), etc. role of international treaties - Montreal Protocol (1987, 1997) recent models and data suggest the ozone hole may not get larger Local & Regional Air Pollution mobile & stationary sources release primary pollutants chemical reactions in atmosphere can form secondary pollutants from primary pollutants Industrial Smog vs. Photochemical Smog industrial smog is mostly sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid suspended in droplets, & a variety of particulates (soot) photochemical smog consists of secondary pollutants (HNO3 PANs, O3...) that are formed in a complex series of reactions involving solar radiation Regional Air Pollution photochemical smog can be local as well as regional another important regional air pollution problem is acid deposition ("acid rain"), which consists of precipitation (rain, snow) or dry deposition with pH lower than 5.6 Regional Air Pollution
acid deposition is now a problem in widespread regions, especially in expansive areas downwind from major industrial areas Control of Air Pollution in U.S. Clean Air Acts (1970, 1977, & 1990) provide federal air pollution regulations mostly standards based approach overall assessment of policy: achievement - between 1970 & 2002, levels of several major air pollutants in U.S. decreased significantly shortcomings - command-and-control approach is inefficient in setting targets and not cost-effective in implementation Control of Air Pollution in U.S. possible reforms: increase mass transportation reduce subsidies on use of cars rely more on emission charges expand use of tradable emission permits Control of Air Pollution in U.S. Emissions Trading Program (ETP) emissions "cap" and "allowance" "cap and trade" policy non-compliant sources have flexibility reduce emissions or buy allowances Anyone can participate in program (including environmentalist groups) http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/trading/index.html Control of Air Pollution in U.S.
U.S. Acid Rain (SO2) Emission Trends 1980-2007 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2010 for the course ARE 110 taught by Professor Ebbin,s during the Spring '08 term at UConn.
- Spring '08