Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine - Nuclear Medicine Imaging BENG 101 David...

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David Hall, Ph.D. Assistant Adjunct Professor Departments of Radiology and Bioengineering UCSD Nuclear Medicine Imaging BENG 101
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Overview Introduction Radionuclides Interaction of Photons with Matter Data Acquisition Imaging Image Quality Equipment Clinical Use Biological effects and Safety Future Expectations
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Overview Introduction Radionuclides Interaction of Photons with Matter Data Acquisition Imaging Image Quality Equipment Clinical Use Biological effects and Safety Future Expectations
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Introduction Radioactive isotopes for medicine investigated since ~ 1920’s. Imaging radionuclide concentration ~ 1940’s Cassen invents rectilinear scanner (slow) ~ 1950’s Anger invents gamma camera (2D detector) ~ 1950’s Anger camera for tomography (similar to X-ray CT) Recall Radon (1917) applied to NMI in 1970’s Iterative reconstruction methods (computers) ~ 1980’s Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
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Introduction Anger also showed two detectors to detect photon pairs originating after positron emission: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Ter-Pogossian built first PET scanner ~ 1970’s Phelps built first PET scanner for human studies ~ 1970’s Originally for research but clinical instruments in last decade. PET and SPECT are similar but important differences. (e.g. PET four times more expensive than SPECT!)
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Overview Introduction Radionuclides Interaction of Photons with Matter Data Acquisition Imaging Image Quality Equipment Clinical Use Biological effects and Safety Future Expectations
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Radionuclides Tracer- molecule carrying an unstable isotope “radionuclide” Injected into patient and gets involved with metabolic process. Radionuclide produces gamma rays which are detectable Hence nuclear medicine measures function or metabolism. (CT, MRI, US can also measure function but NMI is 10 times more sensitive)
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Radioactive Decay modes Radionuclides emit EM rays during radioactive decay. EM rays from nuclei called Gamma rays (freq. range of X-rays) One or a pair of gamma rays emitted in each decay event. β - Emission Neutron transformed into proton and electron ( β - particle) n p + + e - Daughter product can be in excited or metastable state. Decays to more stable nuclear system releasing energy as a Gamma ( γ ) ray (delayed for metastable (isomeric) state) Since β - particle can damage tissue prefer to use a metastable radionuclide to provide γ -rays.
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Radioactive Decay modes 99m Tc is most common example. Metastable daughter of 99 Mo (half life 66 hours) 99m Tc decays to 99 Tc (half life 6 hours) emitting γ -rays (104 KeV) A: neutrons + protons Z: protons = atomic number
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Electron Capture (EC) - inverse of β - decay Orbital electron combines with proton to produce a neutron p + +e - n Daughter product can be in a metastable state releasing γ -rays.
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Nuclear medicine - Nuclear Medicine Imaging BENG 101 David...

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