Subsaharan Africa - Notes

Subsaharan Africa - Notes - - Cradle and Cauldron o African...

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Unformatted text preview: - Cradle and Cauldron o African Continent : 2 Geographic Realms 1)) The African: Southern Sahara tip to Cape of Good Hope 2)) Western flank of the realm dominated by Muslim faith o Sahel : A vast semiarid region of North Africa, south of the Sahara, that forms a transitional zone between the desert and the region known as the Sudan.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Peril of Proximity o Northeastern tip of Brazil = largest single destination for slaves from Africa------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Defining the Realm- Africa’s Physiography o Bulge of Africa (West): Senegal o Horn of Africa (East): Somalia o Sahara (North) and Kalahari (South) = Deserts o Water Supply = Africa’s great problem- Rifts and Rivers o Africa = 1 of 2 continents with cluster of great lakes Lakes (except Lake Victoria) formed via “Rift Valleys” • Rift Valleys from Red Sea Swaziland, Pg 292 map o Africa = “Plateau continent” because almost entire continent above 300 meters in elevation; half of continent over 800 meters high Plateau has sagged under weight of accumulating sediments into a half dozen major basis Margins of plateau marked by escarpments, steep/step like • Most notable escarpments: Great Escarpment of South Africa (marks eastern edge of Drakensberg Mountains)--------------------------------------292------------------------------------------------------------------ Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics o Continental Drift : Alfred Wegener Past Pangaea = All 7 continents combined, Africa = center • Gondwana = Former southern tip of Pangaea, present day core of Africa • Plate Tectonics : Process how Pangaea split to form 7 continents • Therefore, escarpments, rift valleys, river systems, interior basins, lack of Andes-like mountains relate to Africa’s past as the center of Pangaea.--------------------------------------293------------------------------------------------------------------ Natural Environments--------------------------------------294------------------------------------------------------------------ Crops and Animals o Most Africans = Farmers Use the unproductive soils of Savanna To reduce risk of rain hampering crops, many farmers mix livestock herding with farming Steppe : Savannah next to Steppe (drier)- End of An Era o 1)) Europeans introduced ‘sport’ of hunting animals (not African tradition beforehand) o 2)) After realizing they need to conserve animals, make reserves/game parks. But not large enough or well-connected to allow animals to make their seasonal/annual migration o 3)) When food runs low in reserve/game park, animals try to look for better pastures 3.5) When looking for food, run into fence meant to keep animals in game park/reserve, starve to death...
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2010 for the course GEO 143 taught by Professor Harshbarger during the Summer '09 term at Parkland.

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Subsaharan Africa - Notes - - Cradle and Cauldron o African...

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