1) From the Middle East Study Guide's Definitions Section, please select and discuss at
least four (4) definitions.
a) Cultural Diffusion
: Using cultural diffusion, cultural geographers are able
to use present day knowledge of a cultural event to map out its route of
spread via expansion, relocation, hierarchal, or contagious diffusion. For
example, knowing where Islam is prevalent in modern day society and at
various times throughout history, cultural geographers can map out how
the religion spread due to wars, environmental events, and migrations
using spatial and cultural diffusion.
: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an
international association of currently twelve oil-producing countries that
cooperate and coordinate petroleum policies about the price and supply of
oil. Over the recent years, OPEC has secured substantial power by
controlling the majority of the petroleum market for their major
customers: the Western powers. To this day, the twelve countries that
make up OPEC include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela,
Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and the
Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Libya).
c) Basin Irrigation
: The Ancient Egyptians of the lower Nile Valley first
utilized basin irrigation when they built fields with earthen ridges and
trapped Nile floodwaters. The floodwaters’ fertile silt was used to grow
Egyptian crops and continued for thousands of years until dams were built
to provide water year round.
: Fellahin are Egyptian peasants who, like their ancestors of five
millennia past, survive via subsistence farming to making a living off the
2) From the Cultural Geography Section, please select and discuss at least one (1) of the
three major religions:
Islam is the religion whose prophet was Muhammad (AD 571- AD 632) and
whose rules and dogmas are contained in the Quran (Koran). The dominant religion of
the North African and Southwest Asian realm, Islam is monotheistic and acknowledges
the existence of other religions such as Judaism and Christianity and proclaims that