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South Asia - Notes

South Asia - Notes - SOUTH ASIA BOOK NOTES o For last two...

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SOUTH ASIA BOOK NOTES o For last two decades, eyes on China (transformed from rural superpower) Significant changes also came to India o South Asia: Soon to become world’s most populated realm o India: Soon to become world’s most populated country o Countries of South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka o Pakistan & Bangladesh Larger populations than United States ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- M ajor Geographic Qualities of South Asia (402) 1. South Asia is clearly defined physiographically, and much of the realm’s boundary is marked by mountains, deserts, and the Indian Ocean 2. South Asia’s great rivers, especially the Ganges River, have for tens of thousands of years supported huge population clusters 3. South Asia covers just over 3 percent (3%) of the Earth’s land area but contains nearly 23 percent (23%) of the world’s human population 4. South Asia’s population continues to grow at annual rates higher than the world average. It will become the world’s most populous geographic realm during the next decade 5. Poverty remains endemic in South Asia, despite pockets of progress. Hundreds of millions of people are plagued by inadequate nutrition and poor overall health 6. British commercial penetration and colonial domination left strong geographic imprints on this realm, ranging from its boundary framework to its cultural landscapes 7. South Asia’s annual monsoon continues to dominate life for hundreds of millions of subsistence and commercial farmers. Failure of the monsoon cycle spells economic crisis 8. Despite its physiographic demarcation, invading armies and cultures, from ancient Greeks to modern British and from Mongols to Muslims, diversified this realm’s cultural mosaic 9. Several of the world’s great religions and many minor faiths have strong bases in South Asia, including Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism. Religion remains a powerful force in political and economic life 10. India, the world’s largest democracy and functioning federation, is the dominant state in this realm but has contentious relations with several of its neighbors 11. Kashmir, the mountainous territory in the northern frontier zone between India and Pakistan, is a dangerous source of friction between these two nuclear powers
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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- DEFINING THE REALM (402) - South Asia between Himalayas (north) & Indian Ocean (south) - India = Peninsula into Indian Ocean, makes Bay of Bengal & Arabian Sea o West of India: Deserts of Baluchistan and Iran o West of India: Mountains of Afghanistan o East of India: Forested mountains (Myanmar) - Natural barriers didn’t stop foreign influences in realm o Via ocean: religious proselytizers (missionaries) & European imperialists Result: Ethnic mosaic Result: Entire region controlled just by one group, British (unlike Africa, where became ≤50 rulers/countries) Goa controlled by Portugal o When Independence came from British (1940s), Britain wanted to keep area under British control, but Muslims (west/east), Buddhists from then Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), led to division into Pakistan/India/Sri -
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South Asia - Notes - SOUTH ASIA BOOK NOTES o For last two...

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