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Unformatted text preview: Outline Organic vs Inorganic Functional Groups and Isomers Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Macromolecules
Some molecules called macromolecules because of their large size Usually consist of many repeating units Some examples: Category
Lipids Resulting molecule is a polymer (many parts) Repeating units are called monomers Example
Glycerol & fatty acids Monosaccharide Amino acid Nucleotide Carbohydrates Polysaccharide Proteins Nucleic Acids Polypeptide DNA, RNA Common Foods Dehydration and Hydrolysis Dehydration - Removal of water molecule Used to connect monomers together to make polymers Polymerization of glucose monomers to make starch Hydrolysis - Addition of water molecule Used to disassemble polymers into monomer parts Digestion of starch into glucose monomers Specific enzymes required for each reaction Accelerate reaction Are not used in the reaction Synthesis and Degradation of Polymers Four Classes of Organics: 1 - Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: Single sugar molecule Glucose, ribose, deoxyribose Disaccharides: Contain two monosaccharides joined during dehydration reaction Sucrose Polysaccharides: Polymers of monosaccharides Starch, cellulose, chitin Synthesis and Degradation of Maltose, a Disaccharide Carbohydrates Examples: Monosaccharides Single sugar molecules Quite soluble and sweet to taste Examples Glucose (blood), fructose (fruit) and galactose Hexoses - Six carbon atoms Isomers of C6H12O6 Ribose and deoxyribose (in nucleotides) Pentoses Five carbon atoms C5H10O5 & C5H10O4 Carbohydrates Examples: Disaccharides Contain two monosaccharides joined by dehydration reaction Soluble and sweet to taste Examples Sucrose Table sugar, maple sugar One glucose and one fructose joined by dehydration Maltose Malt sugar Two glucoses joined by dehydration Carbohydrates Examples: Polysaccharides (1) Polymers of monosaccharides Low solubility; not sweet to taste Examples Starch Polymer of glucose Used for short-term energy storage Plant Animal Often branched chain Amylose, corn starch Unbranched Glycogen in liver and muscles starch starch Starch Structure and Function Glycogen Structure and Function Four Classes of Organics: 2 - Lipids
Insoluble in water Long chains of repeating CH2 units Renders molecule nonpolar Types of Lipids Type Fats Oils Phospholipids Steroids Waxes Organismal Uses
Longterm energy storage & thermal insulation in animals Longterm energy storage in plants and their seeds Component of plasma membrane Component of plasma membrane; hormones Wear resistance; retain water Human Uses
Butter, lard Cooking oils Nostick pan spray Medicines Candles, polishes Blubbe r Types of Lipids: Triglycerides Types of Lipids: Triglycerides (1) Triglycerides (Fats) Long-term energy storage Backbone of one glycerol molecule Three-carbon alcohol Each has an OH- group Three fatty acids attached to each glycerol molecule Long hydrocarbon chain Saturated Carboxylic acid at one end Carboxylic acid connects to OH on glycerol in dehydration reaction - no double bonds between carbons Unsaturated - 1 double bonds between carbons Dehydration Synthesis of Triglyceride from Glycerol and Three Fatty Acids Types of Lipids: Phospholipids (2) Phospholipids Derived from triglycerides Glycerol backbone Two fatty acids attached instead of three Third fatty acid replaced by phosphate group The fatty acids are nonpolar and hydrophobic The phosphate group is polar and hydrophilic Molecules self arrange when placed in water Polar phosphate "heads" next to water Nonpolar fatty acid "tails" overlap and exclude water Spontaneously form double layer & a sphere Phospholipids Form Membranes Types of Lipids: Steroids & Waxes (3) Steroids Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen Skeletons of four fused carbon rings Waxes Long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long-chain alcohol High melting point Waterproof Resistant to degradation Steroid Diversity Waxe s Four Classes of Organics: 3 -Proteins Functions Support Collagen Enzymes Almost all enzymes are proteins Transport Hemoglobin; membrane proteins Defense Antibodies Hormones Many hormones; insulin Motion Muscle proteins, microtubules Protein Subunits: The Amino Acids Proteins are polymers of amino acids Each amino acid has a central carbon atom (the alpha carbon) to which are attached a hydrogen atom, an amino group NH2, A carboxylic acid group COOH, and one of 20 different types of R (remainder) groups There are 20 different amino acids that make up proteins All of them have basically the same structure except for what occurs at the placeholder R Structural Formulas for the 20 Amino Acids Proteins: The Polypeptide Backbone Amino acids joined together end-to-end COOH of one AA covalently bonds to the NH2 of the next AA Special name for this bond - Peptide Bond Two AAs bonded together Dipeptide Three AAs bonded together Tripeptide Many AAs bonded together Polypeptide Characteristics of a protein determined by composition and sequence of AA's Virtually unlimited number of proteins Synthesis and Degradation of a Peptide Protein Molecules: Levels of Structure
Primary: Literally, the sequence of amino acids A string of beads (up to 20 different colors) Secondary: The way the amino acid chain coils or folds Describing the way a knot is tied Tertiary: Overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide Describing what a knot looks like from the outside Quaternary: Consists of more than one polypeptide Like several completed knots glued together Levels of Protein Organization Other Nucleic Acids ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates In cells, one phosphate bond is hydrolyzed Yields: The molecule ADP (adenosine diphosphate) An inorganic phosphate molecule pi Energy Other energy sources used to put ADP and pi back together again ATP Review Organic vs Inorganic Functional Groups and Isomers Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2010 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Santone during the Spring '08 term at Northeastern.
- Spring '08