CMP305 -test 1 review (word)

CMP305 -test 1 review (word) - Leveling surveying Why...

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Leveling - surveying Why survey? - To protect the owner & builder against costly errors in measurment - To establish the property lines & building lines - Where / how the structure is to be located Construction restrictions Set backs from roads Clearances from property line - Residential vs. commercial - Utility lines, gas, water, sanitary Plot Plans Required before building permit is issued Shows location of all the other structures and indicates the distances to property lines Survey provides the measurements for this plan Purpose of leveling For planning -To establish the necessary elevations to develop plans for such structures as buildings, roads, terraces For lay-out -To assure the structures are built according to the elevations shown on the plans Equipment used: Leveling instrument -A telescope containing both vertical and horizontal cross hairs & a spirit level (vial) to indicate when the instrument is level Tripod Leveling rod -Scale - (plastic or wood) scale ~ 2” wide and ~ 13’ in height (units, feet, tenth’s & hundredths) Types of leveling Differential -Finding the difference in elevation between 2 points Profile leveling -Determining elevation of points at measured distances along a selected line Topographic leveling -Determining the elevation of spaced grid points -Use contour lines to show hills, valleys, slopes 09/09/09 Terms used in Leveling Fore sight (FS) -Differential leveling - only one FS for each instrument set up -Profile & Topographic - may have many FS per set up -FS is ‘-’ from HI to find the elevation of the point Summary points BM elevation + BS = HI
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HI - FS = TP elevation TP elevation + BS = HI Then repeat: HI - FS = TP elevation Caution: Accuracy of differential leveling depends on the following: -Centering the bubble -Check bubble before & after reading -Keep rod vertical -Stand behind rod -Equal sights for BS & FS -Length of sight -Be practical -Common mistake -Reading the wrong footmark Levels (types) Construction level -Dumpy 10-20X, simple -Straight line measurement -4 Screws for leveling -Self-compensating units Transit & Theodolites -Both work in the vertical & horizontal plane, rotate angles, vertical measurement -Transit -More traditional (few automatic features) -Theodolites - EDMI (Electronic Distance Measuring Instrument) -Added the distance component to the theodolite Total station -Theodolite with a computer, auto-angle reading capabilities & distance measure- ment Laser level -Light beam -Color? -Cost is higher vs. straight line -Distance: 500 to 1000’ ---- -Rotating head or cone -Advantages -Only 1 person is needed to get work done -Can be mounted to construction equipment to control hydraulic system GPS (Global Positioning System) -Not the traditional level - in concept Equipment selection Choose what you need Simple - low maintenance
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Store in container / keep dry Inventory your equipment Linear measurement Pacing
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CMP305 -test 1 review (word) - Leveling surveying Why...

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