Answers (Chapter 5) - Discovering Statistics Using SPSS:...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Answers Task 1 A fashion student was interested in factors that predicted the salaries of catwalk models. She collected data from 231 models. For each model she asked them their salary per day on days when they were working (salary), their age (age), how many years they had worked as a model (years), and then got a panel of experts from modelling agencies to rate the attractiveness of each model as a percentage with 100% being perfectly attractive (beauty). The data are on the CD-ROM in the file Supermodel.sav. Unfortunately, this fashion student bought some substandard statistics text and so doesn’t know how to analyse her data☺ Can you help her out by conducting a multiple regression to see which factor predict a model’s salary? How valid is the regression model? b Model Summary Change Statistics Model 1 R R Square .429a .184 Adjusted R Square .173 Std. Error of the Estimate 14.57213 R Square Change .184 F Change 17.066 df1 3 df2 227 Sig. F Change .000 Durbin-W atson 2.057 a. Predictors: (Constant), Attractiveness (%), Number of Years as a Model, Age (Years) b. Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) ANOVAb Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 10871.964 48202.790 59074.754 df 3 227 230 Mean Square 3623.988 212.347 F 17.066 Sig. .000a a. Predictors: (Constant), Attractiveness (%), Number of Years as a Model, Age (Years) b. Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) To begin with a sample size of 231, with 3 predictors seems reasonable because this would easily detect medium to large effects (see the diagram in the Chapter). Overall, the model accounts for 18.4% of the variance in salaries and is a significant fit of the data (F(3, 227) = 17.07, p < .001). The adjusted R2 (.17) shows some shrinkage from the unadjusted value (.184) indicating that the model may not generalises well. We can also use Stein’s formula: adjusted R 2 = 1 − 231 − 1 231 − 2 231 + 1 ( 1 − 0.184 ) 231 − 3 − 1 231 − 3 − 2 231 = 1 − [1.031]( 0.816 ) = 1 − 0.841 = 0.159 This also shows that the model may not cross generalise well. Dr. Andy Field Page 1 5/22/2003 Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 5 Coefficientsa Model 1 Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Error -60.890 16.497 6.234 1.411 Standardized Coefficients Beta Collinearity Statistics Tolerance VIF .942 .079 12.653 -5.561 2.122 -.548 -2.621 .009 -9.743 -1.380 .082 12.157 -.196 (Constant) Age (Years) Number of Years as a Model Attractiveness (%) Sig. .000 .000 95% Confidence Interval for B Lower Bound Upper Bound -93.396 -28.384 3.454 9.015 t -3.691 4.418 .152 -.083 -1.289 .199 -.497 .104 .867 1.153 a. Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) In terms of the individual predictors we could report: B Constant β SE B –60.89 16.50 Age 6.23 1.41 .94** Years as a Model –5.56 2.12 –.55* Attractiveness –0.20 0.15 –.08 Note. R2 = .18 (p < .001). * p < .01, ** p < .001. It seems as though salaries are significantly predicted by the age of the model. This is a positive relationship (look at the sign of the beta), indicating that as age increases, salaries increase too. The number of years spent as a model also seems to significantly predict salaries, but this is a negative relationship indicating that the more years you’ve spent as a model, the lower your salary. This finding seems very counter-intuitive, but we’ll come back to it later. Finally, the attractiveness of the model doesn’t seem to predict salaries. If we wanted to write the regression model, we could write it as: Salary = β 0 + β 1Age i + β 2 Experience i + β 3Attractiveness i = −60.89 + (6.23Age i ) − (5.56Experience i )− (0.02Attractiveness i ) The next part of the question asks whether this model is valid. a Casewise Diagnostics a Collinearity Diagnostics Model 1 Dimension 1 2 3 4 Eigenvalue 3.925 .070 .004 .001 Condition Index 1.000 7.479 30.758 63.344 (Constant) .00 .01 .30 .69 Variance Proportions Number of Years as a Age (Years) Model .00 .00 .00 .08 .02 .01 .98 .91 Attractiveness (%) .00 .02 .94 .04 a. Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) Case Number 2 5 24 41 91 116 127 135 155 170 191 198 Std. Residual 2.186 4.603 2.232 2.411 2.062 3.422 2.753 4.672 3.257 2.170 3.153 3.510 Salary per Day (£) 53.72 95.34 48.87 51.03 56.83 64.79 61.32 89.98 74.86 54.57 50.66 71.32 Predicted Value 21.8716 28.2647 16.3444 15.8861 26.7856 14.9259 21.2059 21.8946 27.4025 22.9401 4.7164 20.1729 Residual 31.8532 67.0734 32.5232 35.1390 30.0459 49.8654 40.1129 68.0854 47.4582 31.6254 45.9394 51.1478 a. Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) Dr. Andy Field Page 2 5/22/2003 Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 5 Histogram Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardize Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) 60 1.00 50 .75 40 Expected Cum Prob 30 Frequency 20 Std. Dev = .99 10 Mean = 0.00 N = 231.00 0 .50 .25 75 4. 25 4. 75 3. 25 3. 75 2. 25 2. 75 1. 25 1. 5 .7 5 .2 5 -.2 5 -.7 5 .2 -1 5 .7 -1 0.00 0.00 Regression Standardized Residual .50 .75 1.00 Observed Cum Prob Scatterplot Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) 5 80 4 60 3 40 2 1 20 0 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Salary per Day (£) Regression Standardized Residual .25 0 -20 -40 -3 Regression Standardized Predicted Value -2 -1 0 1 2 Age (Years) Partial Regression Plot Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) Dependent Variable: Salary per Day (£) 60 40 40 20 20 Salary per Day (£) 80 60 Salary per Day (£) 80 0 -20 -40 -1.5 -1.0 -.5 0.0 .5 1.0 1.5 Number of Years as a Model 0 -20 -40 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Attractiveness (%) Residuals: there 6 cases that has a standardized residual greater than 3, and two of these are fairly substantial (case 5 and 135). We have 5.19% of cases with standardized residuals above 2, so that’s as we expect, but 3% of cases with residuals above 2.5 (we’d expect only 1%), which indicates possible outliers. Normality of errors: The histogram reveals a skewed distribution indicating that the normality of errors assumption has been broken. The normal P-P plot verifies this because the dotted line deviates considerably from the straight line (which indicates what you’d get from normally distributed errors). Dr. Andy Field Page 3 5/22/2003 Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 5 Homoscedasticity and Independence of Errors: The scatterplot of ZPRED vs. ZRESID does not show a random pattern. There is a distinct funnelling indicating heteroscedasticity. However, the Durbin-Watson statistic does fall within Field’s recommended boundaries of 1-3, which suggests that errors are reasonably independent. Multicollinearity: for the age and experience variables in the model, VIF values are above 10 (or alternatively Tolerance values are all well below 0.2) indicating multicollinearity in the data. In fact, if you look at the correlation between these two variables it is around .9! So, these two variables are measuring very similar things. Of course, this makes perfect sense because the older a model is, the more years she would’ve spent modelling! So, it was fairly stupid to measure both of these things! This also explains the weird result that the number of years spent modelling negatively predicted salary (i.e. more experience = less salary!): in fact if you do a simple regression with experience as the only predictor of salary you’ll find it has the expected positive relationship. This hopefully demonstrates why multicollinearity can bias the regression model. All in all, several assumptions have not been met and so this model is probably fairly unreliable. Task 2 Using the Glastonbury data from this chapter (with the dummy coding in GlastonburyDummy.sav), which you should’ve already analysed, comment on whether you think the model is reliable and generalizable? This question asks whether this model is valid. Model Summaryb Change Statistics Model 1 R R Square .276a .076 Adjusted R Square .053 Std. Error of the Estimate .68818 R Square Change .076 F Change 3.270 df1 3 df2 119 Sig. F Change .024 DurbinWatson 1.893 a. Predictors: (Constant), No Affiliation vs. Indie Kid, No Affiliation vs. Crusty, No Affiliation vs. Metaller b. Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The Festival Coefficientsa Model 1 Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Error -.554 .090 -.412 .167 .028 .160 -.410 .205 (Constant) No Affiliation vs. Crusty No Affiliation vs. Metaller No Affiliation vs. Indie Kid Standardized Coefficients Beta -.232 .017 -.185 t -6.134 -2.464 .177 -2.001 Sig. .000 .015 .860 .048 95% Confidence Interval for B Lower Bound Upper Bound -.733 -.375 -.742 -.081 -.289 .346 -.816 -.004 Collinearity Statistics Tolerance VIF .879 .874 .909 1.138 1.144 1.100 a. Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The Festival a Casewise Diagnostics Collinearity Model 1 Dimension 1 2 3 4 Eigenvalue 1.727 1.000 1.000 .273 Condition Index 1.000 1.314 1.314 2.515 a Diagnostics (Constant) .14 .00 .00 .86 Variance Proportions No Affiliation No Affiliation vs. Crusty vs. Metaller .08 .08 .37 .32 .07 .08 .48 .52 Case Number 31 153 202 346 479 No Affiliation vs. Indie Kid .05 .00 .63 .32 a. Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The Festival Std. Residual -2.302 2.317 -2.653 -2.479 2.215 Change in Hygiene Over The Festival -2.55 1.04 -2.38 -2.26 .97 Predicted Value -.9658 -.5543 -.5543 -.5543 -.5543 Residual -1.5842 1.5943 -1.8257 -1.7057 1.5243 a. Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The Festival Dr. Andy Field Page 4 5/22/2003 Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 5 Histogram Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standard Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The 20 1.00 .75 Expected Cum Prob Frequency 10 Std. Dev = .99 Mean = 0.00 N = 123.00 0 .50 .25 2. 1. 1. .7 .2 25 75 5 5 5 5 25 5 5 5 - .2 5 .2 .7 .2 .7 - .7 -1 -1 -2 -2 0.00 0.00 Regression Standardized Residual .75 1.00 Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over The 2 Change in Hygiene Over The Festival 3 Regression Standardized Residual .50 Observed Cum Prob Scatterplot 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -.5 0.0 .5 1.0 1 0 -1 -2 -.4 Regression Standardized Predicted Value -.2 0.0 .2 .4 .6 .8 No Affiliation vs. Crusty Partial Regression Plot Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over Th Dependent Variable: Change in Hygiene Over Th 2.0 Change in Hygiene Over The Festival 2.0 Change in Hygiene Over The Festival .25 1.5 1.0 .5 0.0 -.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -.4 -.2 0.0 .2 .4 .6 .8 No Affiliation vs. Metaller 1.5 1.0 .5 0.0 -.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -.4 -.2 0.0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 No Affiliation vs. Indie Kid Residuals: there are no cases that have a standardized residual greater than 3. We have 4.07% of cases with standardized residuals above 2, so that’s as we expect, and .81% of cases with residuals above 2.5 (and we’d expect 1%), which indicates the data are consistent with what we’d expect. Normality of errors: The histogram looks reasonably normally distributed indicating that the normality of errors assumption has probably been met. The normal P-P plot verifies this Dr. Andy Field Page 5 5/22/2003 Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Chapter 5 because the dotted line doesn’t deviates much from the straight line (which indicates what you’d get from normally distributed errors). Homoscedasticity and Independence of Errors: The scatterplot of ZPRED vs. ZRESID does look a bit odd with categorical predictors, but essentially we’re looking for the height of the lines to be about the same (indicating the variability at each of the three levels is the same). This is true indicating homoscedasticity. The Durbin-Watson statistic also falls within Field’s recommended boundaries of 1-3, which suggests that errors are reasonably independent. Multicollinearity: all variables in the model, VIF values are below 10 (or alternatively Tolerance values are all well above 0.2) indicating no multicollinearity in the data. All in all, the model looks fairly reliable (but you should check for influential cases!). Dr. Andy Field Page 6 5/22/2003 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course IE 0ap06 taught by Professor Ennart during the Spring '10 term at Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online