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Unformatted text preview: palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, etc.) Anxiety about being in any place or situation from which escape might be difficult. Typical fears involve being alone outside the home, standing in a crowd, crossing a bridge, or traveling in a bus, train or automobile Patient persistently reexperiences a traumatic event through distressing recollections, recurring dreams or intense reactions to anything symbolizing or resembling the event Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, inappropriate or blunted emotional responses, loss of motivation and cognitive deficits Similar to schizophrenia, but the symptoms last for less than six months and may not be severe enough to impair social or occupational functioning Dysthymia 1.6 Bipolar I 1.1 Bipolar II ANXIETY DISORDERS Specific Phobia 0.6 8.3
SOURCES: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH; DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS, FOURTH EDITION, 1994 Agoraphobia 4.9 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS Schizophrenia Schizophreniform Disorder 3.6 1.3 0.1 *Percent of U.S. population between ages 18 and 54 suffering from the disorder in any one-year period. generally relies on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce precise measurements of brain structures. The second is functional neuroimaging, which generates maps of brain activity by detecting signals that correlate with the firing of brain cells. Functional neuroimaging usually involves the application of MRI or positron emission tomography (PET). The third type of neuroimaging, which typically employs PET, uses radioactive tracers to locate and quantify specific molecules in the brain. In research settings, imaging tools can help explain what goes wrong in the brain to produce certain mental illnesses, and these findings in turn can help define the boundaries of brain disorders. In clinical settings, neuroimaging tools may eventually play a role in diagnosis and in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. To be useful for psychiatric diagnosis, a test based on neuroimaging must be affordable and feasible to administer. It must also be sensitive enough to detect the inconspicuous features of a particular brain disorder and yet specific enough to rule out other conditions. Some anatomical signs of mental disorders are nonspecific: people with schizophrenia generally have enlarged cerebral ventricles (the fluid-filled spaces deep in the brain), but this abnormality may also occur in people with alcoholism or Alzheimer's. In patients with severe, chronic depression, the hippocampus-- a brain structure critically involved in memory-- may be atrophied, but
SEPTEMBER 2003 102 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. this anomaly has also been observed in post-traumatic stress disorder a...
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course PSY 320 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '10 term at Suffolk.
- Spring '10