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boppsychEC - Kacy Grady Sleep pharmacology and...

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Kacy Grady 810-79-8900 Sleep pharmacology and corresponding brain mechanisms Sleep is a strictly controlled operation managed by several regulatory systems. Even though these mechanisms are carefully regulated, some sleep disorders do emerge, some resulting from the disruption in sleep circuitry, whereas some are consequential to another condition, or even one’s daily lifestyle. Sleep complaints are the second-leading cause for seeking medical attention, after (Mitchell & Weinshenker, 2010). Medications to treat such disorders are a necessity in modern day society, as well as the knowledge and comprehension of the pathways the neurotransmitter systems that regulate sleep. Sleep disorders can be categorized into two basic groups: excessive wakefulness, and excessive sleepiness. The best example of an excessive wakefulness disorder is insomnia. Insomnia is defined as difficulty falling asleep and maintaining adequate sleep, and is the most commonly reported sleep problem in the United States (Mitchell & Weinshenker, 2010). The most common examples of excessive sleep disorders are narcolepsy and hypersomnia. Both of these disorders involve excessive daytime sleepiness, and/or frequent periods of uncontrollable sleeping. Multiple areas and neurotransmitters throughout the brain control sleep. Norepinephrine is one of the major neurotransmitters facilitating in arousal and is vital for the effectiveness of sleep medications. Sleep medications are divided into two groups: wake-promoting medications and sleep-promoting medications. The level of arousal between different states of wakefulness is controlled by the collaboration of different sleep-promoting brain areas, which in turn are acted upon by
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wake-promoting drugs. Wake-promoting medications are among the most commonly
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