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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14: Cognitive Functions A. Lateralization of function the idea that each hemisphere of the brain is specialized for different functions 1. Each hemisphere is connected to the opposite side of the body (contralateral) o a.) Examples: Skin receptors and muscles on the right side of the body are connected to the left hemisphere Each hemisphere processes visual information from the opposite side of the world 2. Corpus callosum a sex of axons through which the right and left hemisphere exchange information o a.) Other areas that exchange information include: the anterior commissure the hippocampal commissure a few other small commissures o b.) Information crosses to the other hemisphere with only a brief delay o c.) Allows each hemisphere of the brain access to information from both sides o d.) The corpus callosum matures gradually through the first 5-10 years thus, young children have difficulty comparing information from the left and right hand Being born with a condition where the corpus callosum does not completely develop results in extra development of: 1. Anterior commissure connects the anterior parts of the cerebral cortex 2. Hippocampal commissure connects the left and right hippocampus Allows better performance on some tasks compared with split-brain people o e.) Damage to the corpus callosum interferes with the exchange of information between hemispheres Epilepsy a condition characterized by repeated episodes of excessive synchronized neural activity Mainly due to decreased released of GABA Physicians once cut the corpus callosum to prevent the seizure from spreading to the opposite side of the body Split-brain people people who have undergone surgery to the corpus callosum 1. They maintain normal intellect and motivation but they tend to: a. Use hands independently in a way others cannot b. Respond differently to stimuli presented to only one side of the body 2. Sperry revealed a subtle behavioral differences for spilt brain people: a. Because the left side of the brain is dominant for language in most people, most split brain people gave difficulty naming objects briefly viewed in the left visual field b. A small amount of information can still be transferred via several smaller commissures c. Immediately after surgery, each hemisphere can only quickly and accurately respond to information that reaches it directly smaller commissures allow a slower response d. The brain later learns to use the smaller connections e. Difficulty integrating information between both remainse....
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- Fall '08