develp - 4 Questions Central to study of development 1 Is...

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4 Questions Central to study of development 1. Is development continuous or discontinuous? Continuous—differences b/w adults and preschoolers is quantitative Discontinuous—differences are qualitative 2.What are the sources of development? Nature—inborn biological givens -Heredity Phylogeny Ontogeny -Endogenous Nurture—social/cultural influences -Exogenous 3.To what extent and under what conditions is it possible to change the normal course of  development? Plasticity—degree to which development is open to change  -Critical periods: time during which specific events must take place for normal  development to occur -Sensitive periods -Cultural sensitive periods Minoura 4. How does a person develop stable, individual characteristics over time? What makes us different from one another? -Internal/external influences -Differences in biology and/or experience To what extent are we the same person over time? -Neoteny—refers to retaining some features from childhood that illicit responses  to environment -Resilience—the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development 4 factors predicts who thrives: 1. Personal characteristics—intellectual capacity and  temperament 2. One warm parental relationship—this parent provides a non- chaotic home -“Goodness of fit” 3. Social support outside the immediate family 4. Strong community Compound adversity—makes resilience less likely John Bowlby On the central debates: Primacy—infant’s ability to form secure attachment in first two years establishes  attachment style for life Discontinuous—there are stages in attachment
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Nurture—it is parental responsivity that creates attachment Separation anxiety 6-8 months to 18-24 months Object permanence—cognitive awareness that objects exist when they are not in sight Cognitive model for the relationship when the caregiver is not physically present Internal working models—infants form mental representations of attachment that becomes the  map for all future relationships Secure base—primary task for caregivers in first two years of life is to offer infant secure base Solid emotional bonds Foundation for being in the world Security to explore world, of identity, and sense of self Stages of Attachment: 1. Pre-attachment -Birth to 6 weeks 2. Attachment-in-the-making -6 weeks to 6-8 months -Infants learn to distinguish b/w caregiver and self/strangers -Infants develop “social wariness” 3. Clear-cut attachment -6-8 months to 18-24 months -Separation anxiety 4. Reciprocal relationships -2 years and after -Mirroring—child able to reflect their feelings to parents and recognize their 
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course ANTH 1100 taught by Professor Stack,eile during the Fall '08 term at Colorado.

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develp - 4 Questions Central to study of development 1 Is...

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