Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders - Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders A....

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Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders A. Mood Disorders Mental illness results from the combination of biological predisposition and experiences A solid understanding of both aspects is necessary for successful treatment 1.  Depression : Genetic changes in serotonin transporter protein (SERT)—controls the ability of the axon to reabsorb the NT after its  release Two “short forms” of the gene are associated with an increased liklihood of depression after stressful events o a.)  Major Depression —characterized by sadness, loss of interest in usual pursuits, abnormalities in sleep, appetite,  energy and motivation o b.)  Dysthymia —chronic milder depression usually with bouts of major depression o c.)  Season affective disorder —depressive symptoms during winter time when days are shorter o d.)  Reactive depression —sadness that occurs in response to a life event  o e.)  Bipolar disorder —episodes of mania with or without episodes of depression; mania can be euphoric or include  increased irritability, energy, and decreased need for sleep; impulsive, high self-esteem and distractable Depression affects everyone (1 in 5) Average age of onset=27 Becoming increasingly common in children (1 in 8) Women: 6.7 million Men: 3.2 million—more likely to self medicate with alcohol or other drugs Elderly: 6.5 million—likely related to loss of health and function Heredity: o a.) Studies of twins and adopted children suggest a moderate degree of heritability o b.) Some of the genes associated with depression are also associated with anxiety disorders, ADHD, OCD,  substance-abuse disorders, bulimia, migraines, IBS, etc.
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o c.) Risk is elevated among relatives of women with early-onset depression (before 30) Diverse symptoms=diverse biology: o Sleep disturbances: brainstem monoamines/cholinergic nuclei and circadian pacemaker in suprachaiasmatic o Responsiveness to stress: HPA axis o Appetite/Energy: hypothalamic functioning o Anhedonia/lack of motivation: cortical and striatal functioning o Increased anxiety: amygdala
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course ANTH 1100 taught by Professor Stack,eile during the Fall '08 term at Colorado.

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Mood Disorders - Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders A....

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