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The Plasma Membrane and Membrane Potential Chapter 3
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The Plasma Membrane is a Bi-layer structure The membrane has a phosphate head & tail with a lipid center. The gives the membrane its distinctive appearance.
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Choline Phosphate Glycerol Fatty acid Head (polar, hydrophilic) Tails (nonpolar, hydrophobic) - = Negative charge on phosphate group -
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Lipid bilayer ICF (water) ECF (water) Polar heads (hydrophilic) Nonpolar tails (hydrophobic) Polar heads (hydrophilic)
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Lipid bilayer Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid
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The plasma membrane is a fluid lipid bi-layer embedded with proteins . Phospholipids form a bi-layer. The bi-layer has a hydrophobic interior. This interior is sandwiched between hydrophilic inner and outer surfaces. Cholesterol molecules are tucked between the phospholipid molecules. Carbohydrates are attached to its outer surface. Its EM appearance is trilaminar.
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Glycoprotein Glycolipid Extracellular fluid Carbohydrate chain Lipid bilayer Cholesterol molecule Phospholipid molecule Channel Intracellular fluid Various membrane proteins Dark line Light space Appearance using an electron microscope Dark line
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The lipid bi-layer has three functions. It forms the basic structure of the membrane. Its hydrophobic interior is a barrier to water-soluble substances. It allows the membrane to be fluid.
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SEVEN FUNCTIONS OF CELL MEMBRANE PROTEINS ACT AS CHANNELS CARRIER MOLECULES ACT AS TRANSPORTERS OF SECRETORY VESICLES MEMBRANE BOUND ENZYMES RECEPTOR SITES CELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULES OUTER MEMBRANE RECOGNITION PROTEINS
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Role of the Recognition Proteins They comprise something called: The Extra-Cellular Matrix = ECM There are three types of proteins in the ECM Collagen Elastin Fibronectin
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Types of Protein fibers in the ECM COLLAGEN cable-like fibers hold cells together ELASTIN rubber-like proteins which stretch & recoil to maintain the cells original shape FIBRONECTIN holds cells to cells & keeps them in their correct position
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Intercellular communication occurs three ways. One way is through gap junctions. Some cells communicate by signal molecules on the surface membrane. Extracellular chemical messengers are is the most common means. There are four types: paracrines, neurotransmitters, hormones, and neurohormones.
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Small molecules and ions Paracrine Neurotransmitter Hormone Neurohormone Gap junctions Transient direct linkup of cells
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Extracellular chemical messengers Paracrines are local chemical messengers between cells. Neurotransmitters are short-range chemical messengers released by neurons. Hormones are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands. Neurohormones are long-range chemical messengers secreted into the blood by neurosecretory cells.
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Small molecules and ions Paracrine Neurotransmitter Hormone Neurohormone Paracrine secretion Secreting cell Local target cell Neurotransmitter secretion Electrical signal Secreting cell (neuron) Local target cell
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