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The Central Nervous System Chapter 5
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DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 2 PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM       THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM      THE PERIPHERAL N.S. 2 PARTS OF THE PERIPHERAL N.S.         THE  A FFERENT DIVISION (INFO TO [ A T] THE CNS)      THE  E FFERENT DIVISION (INFO FROM [ E XIT] THE CNS)   2 PARTS OF THE EFFERENT DIVISION OF THE PNS       SOMATIC N.S. OR MUSCULAR (MOVEMENT)     AUTONOMIC N.S.  2 PARTS OF THE AUTONOMIC N.S.       SYMPATHETIC (EMERGENCY)
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The nervous system has two branches: central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS has two main divisions: The Afferent division The Efferent division
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The Afferent Division The A fferent division sends information to ( A t)the CNS. It consists of sensory information of various kinds.
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The Efferent Division The E fferent division sends information away from ( E xits) the CNS. The information goes to effector organs. (like muscles, organs and glands). The Efferent nervous system consists of two branches. Somatic Autonomic
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Somatic The somatic nervous signals skeletal muscles. It causes voluntary contractions of skeletal muscles. It causes bodily movement.
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Brain Central nervous system (CNS) Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Afferent division Efferent division Sensory stimuli Visceral stimuli Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Motor neurons Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Glands Effector organs (made up of muscle and gland tissue) (Input to CNS from periphery) (Output from CNS to periphery)
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There are three classes of neurons. AFFERENT EFFERENT INTERNEURONS
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AFFERENT NEURONS An afferent neuron sends signals toward the CNS. It generates action potentials from sensory receptors at its peripheral end. It has a long axon and is found mainly in the PNS.
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EFFERENT NEURONS An efferent neuron sends signals away from the CNS to an effector organ. It has a long peripheral axon in the PNS. Lies mostly in the PNS.
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INTERNEURONS An interneuron is found entirely within the CNS. It lies between afferent and efferent neurons.
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Figure 5.2 Page 137 Central nervous system (spinal cord) Peripheral nervous system Axon terminals Cell body Afferent neuron Central axon Peripheral axon (afferent fiber) Receptor Interneuron Efferent neuron* Effector organ (muscle or gland) Axon(efferent fiber) Axon terminals Efferent autonomic nerve pathways consist of a two-neuron chain between the CNS and the effector organ. Cell body
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called GLIAL Cells GLIAL CELLS do not send signals.
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