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Muscle Physiology Chapter 8
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There are three kinds of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. These three kinds of muscle tissue compose about 50 percent of a human’s body (non- water) weight. Skeletal muscle tissue is striated (lined) and subject to voluntary control. Cardiac muscle is striated and involuntary. Smooth muscle is involuntary. Therefore there is overlap among the three.
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Striated muscle Unstriated muscle Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Voluntary muscle Involuntary muscle
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Skeletal Fiber Distinctions Their cells are very large (relatively). Muscle cells are called Muscle Fibers. They function in groups called Bundles. They have smaller functioning units called: Myofirbrils ( which have smaller units) Sarcomeres
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Figure 8.2 (1) Page 259 Muscle Tendon Muscle fiber (a single muscle cell) Connective tissue Muscle Bundle
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A muscle cell is called a: Skeletal Muscle Fiber. It is large, elongated, and cylinder- shaped. The fibers extend the entire length of a skeletal muscle. The fibers are composed of smaller, sub-units called: MYOFRIBRILS
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Muscle fiber Dark A band Light I band Myofibril
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The MYOFRIBRILS also have sub-units. They contain the contractile elements of the muscle. The contractile elements are thick filaments called MYOSIN and thin filaments called ACTIN. Actin and myosin are arranged in units called SARCOMERES .
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Figure 8.2 (3) Page 259 Z line A band I band Portion of myofibril M line Sarcomere H zone Thick filament Thin filament Cross bridges M line H zone Z line A band I band Thick filament Thin filament Myosin Actin
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I band A band I band Cross bridge Thick filament Thin filament
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The SARCOMERE is the functional unit of the muscle. A sarcomere is found between two Z lines. Its regions are: A band - myosin (thick) filaments stacked along with parts of the actin (thin) filament. H zone - middle of the A band where actin does not reach M line - extends vertically down the center of the A band I band - has part of actin that do not project into A band
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Figure 8.2 (3) Page 259 Z line A band I band Portion of myofibril M line Sarcomere H zone Thick filament Thin filament Cross bridges M line H zone Z line A band I band Thick filament Thin filament Myosin Actin
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The Muscle Fiber Is Composed of Special Contractile Proteins Myosin is the main, thick structural protein in the sarcomere. It has cross bridges for attaching to the Actin protein. Actin is the main, thin structural protein in the sarcomere. Each actin molecule has a binding site that can attach with a Myosin cross bridge. Actin and mysoin are contractile proteins.
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Actin binding site Myosin ATPase site Heads Tail Myosin molecule
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Myosin molecule Cross bridge Thick filament
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Tropomyosin and Troponin Are Thin Regulatory Proteins. These regulatory proteins control the
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