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view-9.php - The Blood Chapter 11 The blood is the medium...

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The Blood Chapter 11
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The blood is the medium for the transport of substances around the body. The blood is composed of: Mostly water-plasma 54-58% Red blood cells (41-45% Everything else (WBC’s, plateletes, proteins, etc) 1%
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Packed cell volume, or hematocrit Plasma = 55% of whole blood “Buffy coat” <1% Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells = 45% of whole blood
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Three types of cellular elements in the blood are: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. The plasma is the liquid part of the blood. About 99% of the cells are erythrocytes. The hematocrit is the percentage of total blood occupied by erythrocytes. It averages 42% in women and 45% in men. The plasma is 90% water. Let’s look at it first.
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Plasma consists of water and other substances. The plasma consists of water (90%) which is a transport medium for all blood borne substances, & Ions, gases, nutrients, hormones, and plasma proteins (10%). The majority is plasma proteins (8%).
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Plasma Proteins Plasma Proteins have numerous functions: Establish an osmotic gradient between the blood and interstitial fluid. (osmotic pressure) Proteins buffer pH changes. Aid in the transport of many blood-borne substances (hormones, etc.) Function in immunity as antibodies (some). Fibrinogen is a key factor in blood clotting.
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The other main component of the blood is red blood cells (RBCs) or Erythrocytes = transport oxygen. They also transport carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions. The diameter of an erythrocyte is about 8 um. This cell lacks a nucleus, organelles, and ribosomes. It is mainly a package of hemoglobin molecules + iron.
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