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The Endocrine System The Central & Peripheral Endocrine Glands Chapter 17
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The Endocrine System: An Overview The endocrine system consists of a number of specialized tissues called: Endocrine Glands. The endocrine glands form a system designed for homeostatic control of many bodily processes. Glands secrete substances called Hormones into the blood.
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The Role of Hormones A hormone travels in the blood, signaling distant target cells. They are not connected anatomically. Target cells are specific for each hormone. It is specific because these cells (target tissues) have receptors (membrane bound proteins) that uniquely bind to a specific chemical messenger (the hormone).
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Pineal Hypothalamus Pituitary Parathyroid Thyroid Thymus Heart Stomach Adrenal gland Pancreas Duodenum Kidney Skin Ovaries in female Placenta in pregnant female Solely endocrine function Mixed function Complete function uncertain Testes in male
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The General Functions of the Endocrine System include: 1. Maintaining Homeostasis by: A. Regulating Metabolism 2. Dealing with stress 4. Controlling reproduction 5. Regulating RBC production 6. Controlling circulation, digestion, absorption
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There are even glands that control other glands . These glands secrete hormones that signal other glands to secrete hormones. They are called: Tropic Hormones
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The endocrine system is very complex system. For Instance: One gland can produce multiple hormones. Each with different target tissues and actions. (i.e. Pancreas) A single hormone can have many different target cells and, therefore, more than one effect. (i.e. epinephrine) Also, a single target cell can be influenced by more than one hormone. (i.e. the liver/storage & release of glucose) The rate of secretion of a hormone can vary over time. The same chemical messenger can be a hormone or neurotransmitter (i.e. norepinephrine).
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Hormones are chemically classified into three categories. 1. Peptides, shorter protein chains. (The majority of hormones are peptides) 2. Amines are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. They are secreted by the adrenal medulla. 3. Steroid hormones are derived from fats (actually cholesterol, the sex hormones). Steroid hormones are fat soluble.
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of hormones (How hormones work). 1. Hormones bind w/ membrane receptors (proteins). This alters the membrane permeability and allows substances into the cell. 2. Steroid Hormones diffuse through the membrane and react w/ something inside (usually to change cellular activity). 3. Lipophilic hormones activate intra-cellular
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course PHYSIO EXERCISE P taught by Professor Gil during the Spring '10 term at UCSB.

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view-11.php - The Endocrine System The Central & Peripheral...

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