view-12.php - The Urinary System Chapter 13 The Urinary...

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The Urinary System Chapter 13
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The Urinary System is important in helping to maintain internal homeostasis. It helps maintain: Electrolyte composition pH Balance Eliminates wastes from the body
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The kidneys (controlled by neural & hormonal input) are the major site of urinary action. Their functions are: 1. Maintain proper plasma volume (controls BP). 2. Maintain the proper osmolarity of body fluids. 3. Control electrolyte (ion) and water balance. 4. Help to maintain proper acid-base balance. 5. Excrete wastes of body metabolism & many foreign compounds. 6. Produce erythropoietin (RBC’s) and renin (Na+ retention). 7. Convert vitamin D to an active form.
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Renal vein Inferior vena cava Urinary bladder Urethra Renal artery Kidney Aorta Ureter Renal pyramid Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal pelvis Ureter
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The kidneys form the urine. The urinary system eliminates urine from the body. The kidneys filter the plasma flowing through it. They retain necessary substances and Urine drains into the ureter which leads to the bladder. The urine is stored in the urinary bladder. It is emptied periodically through the urethra. The urethra passes the urine out of the body.
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Glomerular capillaries Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Venous blood Urine Tubule (from proximal tubule to collecting duct) Bowman’s capsule Filtrate pathway Blood pathway Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion
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Female Male Urethra External urethral orifice Ureter Smooth muscle of bladder wall Ureteral openings Internal sphincter External sphincter External urethral orifice Urethra
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The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. It is the smallest unit that can perform all of the functions of the kidney. Each kidney has about one million nephrons. The nephron is composed of smaller units called: Glomeruli(us). This is the filtration unit of the nephron.
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The Glomerulus filters the plasma . Water and solutes are filtered through the glomerulus as blood passes through it. From the renal artery, blood is deliverd to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a complicated structure that filters the plasma.
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The nephron is a hollow tube with different regions. Fluid (plasma) passes through it. Water & some solutes are removed. The plasma continues through a series of tubes where continued filtration occurs. Continued filtration occurs returning useful or necessary substances. Most of the plasma is also returned. Some plasma is needed to remove wastes (urine).
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The Filtration Process Outward filtration is indiscriminate (e.g. except for plasma proteins, everything
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view-12.php - The Urinary System Chapter 13 The Urinary...

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