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Fluid and Acid-Base Balance Chapter 14
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Cells exist in a tightly controlled environment the ECF Maintaining the homeostasis of the ECF also maintains the life support fluid of the cells. Both the fluids & the substances in it must be tightly controlled. Although we don’t have a “storage” place for water (all is being used) most other substances have some storage capacity. Dietary excesses are stored and deficiencies are supplied by stored supply. It’s a balance between input and output.
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Input must equal output to maintain a stable balance in the ECF. A positive balance exists when input exceeds output. A negative balance exists when output exceeds input. Generally the input of substances into the plasma is poorly controlled or not controlled. Eating habits are variable. Compensatory adjustments usually occur on the output side by urinary excretion. By this adjustment, salts and acids are kept within narrow,
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Inputs to internal pool (Inside body) Outputs from internal pool Input from external environment (through ingestion, inhalation, absorption through body surface, or artificial injection) Storage depots within body (no function other than storage) Excretion to external environment (through kidneys, lungs, digestive tract, or body surface, e.g., sweat, tears, sloughed skin) Metabolically produced by body Internal pool (extracellular fluid concentration) of a substance Metabolically consumed in body (irretrievably altered) Reversible incorporation into more complex molecular structures (fulfills a specific function)
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Generally, the first place the imbalance exists is in the plasma then the interstitial area. The main components of acid/base balance are salts: Na + , Cl - , K + , H + 2 O. Therefore, fluid & acid/base balance are intimately connected. So let’s look at water balance first and then how that relates to acid/base and the acids themselves.
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Body water is divided into two basic compartments The majority of the body’s water is contained in the ICF (intracellular fluid) inside all cells. About 60% of the body’s water is in the ICF. The remaining 40% is ECF (extracellular fluid). ECF is divided into 2 sub-compartments, Interstitial (80%), and vascular (20%). The interstitial bathes the cells. The vascular provides the transport medium.
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the ECF and ICF compartments. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. Its amount varies in the different kinds of tissues in the body. Overall, its total amount remains constant in a person’s body. Other than the ICF & ECF, there are minor ECF compartments such as the lymph, joints, eyes, digestive tract, and digestive compartment. Generally, these compartments are not really
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view-13.php - Fluid and Acid-Base Balance Chapter 14 Cells...

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