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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9-The Human lineage evolves 1 The first...

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Chapter 9-The Human lineage evolves 1) The first members of genus Homo a) Leakey’s found Zinjanthropus-1959 i) Simple stone tools at the same level of Olduvai Gorge b) Lower Paleolithic (early stone age) i) Earliest period of hominid tool-making in Africa, Europe, and Asia; dates to as much as 2.5mya (in Africa) to about 250,00ya throughout the old world. c) Oldowan i) A tool-making tradition from Africa associated with early homo d) Pebble Tools i) The earliest type of hominid stone tool, made from water-smoothed stones with a few flakes taken off one or both sides. e) Core Tools i) A tool made by taking a flake off a stone nucleus f) Flake tools i) A tool made from a flake removed from a stone core. ii) Variety of tasks: cutting meat and plant material, scrapping meat off bone, sawing wood or bone. g) Makers of the tools may have traveled some distance to find a source of stone known to be superior for the production of sharp, durable tools. i) The cores were carried around to wherever the flakes were needed (1) Shows a high level of planning ii) Simple stone tools-Ethiopia, 2.6mya iii) Homo Habilis (handy man) (1) Notable increase in brain size. (a) New trend in hominid evolution, bigger brains greater intelligence. h) Homo rudolfensis i) Larger body and brain size then in H.habilis
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ii) Lack of a continuous brow ridge iii) “early homo” i) The arm-to-leg proportions of early homo more closely resembled those of Australopithecus Africanus i) Long arms, short legs j) Richard Leakey suggests: i) Sharp tools allowed these hominids to more quickly cut meat and bones of a carcass, making the addition of meat to the diet through scavenging safer and more efficient. k) Stone cache sites i) Hominids left supplies of stones and to which they took scavenged animals remains for quick, safe processing and eating. ii) Sites were used for short periods, and repeatedly iii) Mostly lower leg bones of antelopes found-rich in marrow (1) Found that cut marks left by stone tools were usually on shafts of the bones as if pieces of meat were cut off. (2) Hominid tool marks sometimes overlapped carnivore tooth marks-showing that the carnivores had gotten their first. l) Their large brains allowed them to better understand their environments and to manipulate it. i) Adaptive themes of Bipedalism, large brains, social organization, and tool making technology set the stage for the rest of the hominid evolution. 2) To New Lands a) Most of the fossils at the beginning of genus Homo are included in the species Homo erectus. i) Some split into Homo ergaster as well. b) Most famous H.erectus fossils are those from Zhoukoudian, a cave outside of Beijing, China (1920’s) i) Stone tools and animal bones (horses and hyenas) ii) Cave was first occupied about 460,00ya and used until about 230,000ya iii) “Peking man”
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(1) Lost during war times, never seen again.
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