Chapter 12 - Chapter 12: The origins of Agriculture 1. Life...

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Chapter 12: The origins of Agriculture 1. Life at the end of the Pleistocene a. Beginning of the Holocene i. Began 10,000ya ii. Warming of the world’s climate 2. Mesolithic and Archaic cultures of the early Holocene a. The key characteristic of the environment of Holocene Europe is its vast array of plants and animals suitable for exploitation by humans b. Mesolithic i. The name given to cultures in Europe at the end of the Pleistocene and before the agriculture revolution. ii. Characterized as opportunistic foragers 1. Hunter-gathers whose highly flexible subsistence systems allows them to exploit whatever resources become available in their area whenever they become available c. In North America, the waning stages of the Pleistocene saw extinction of many tundra-adapted large-game species and their replacement with more fauna. The Archaic period i. (9,000 to 30,000ya) time period in the New World that follows the Paleo-Indian period. ii. Represents the beginning of regionalization d. Shell mound Archaic i. A post-Pleistocene adaptation in the American southeast marked by the development of large and dense human populations that exploited shellfish and constructed great ceremonial mounds primarily out of shells. e. in east Asia shift are seen in substance and regionalization f. Africa and the Middle east i. Shifted to plant resources. 3. The food-processing revolution a. The shift from foraging to food production though domestication, beginning after 12,000ya
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i. Agricultural revolution b. Neolithic i. “New stone age” now refers to period of the beginning of agriculture. ii. Marks a point in time when people switch to domesticate those plants and animals they had previously relied on for good only in their wild state. c.
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course ISS 220 taught by Professor Bailey during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12: The origins of Agriculture 1. Life...

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