Chapter 10 - Chapter 10: Journalism 1) Journalism in...

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Chapter 10: Journalism 1) Journalism in America life a) Journalism: the way new is disseminated through reporting on government, politics, and policies, economics, and other news issues b) Political journalism: Special type of journalism focuses on reporting on the political process, including campaigns and elections, Congress, the presidency, and other government and political entities. i) Has helped guard against secrecy and governmental power. c) Popular government: Government that is controlled by the citizenry rather than an elite cadre of officials. d) Infotainment: A blend of information and entertainment. Critics believe such treatments masquerade as journalism and deceive the public. 2) Challenges to Elite authority a) During the early colonial period, journalists were not a separate occupational group i) Writers were citizens first and intellectuals or commentators second. (1) Journalist does not have rights that ordinary citizens do not have. ii) 1733, John Peter Zenger (New York Weekly Journal) (1) Seditious Libel: Criticism of the government. In colonial times, such criticism was considered libelous even if it was true. (a) Established a political, although not a legal, precedent for the right to criticize government. (i) Precedent: A legal decision that sets a standard for how subsequent cases are decided. 3) Independence and the Marketplace of ideas a) Journalists played an important role during the late 18 th century struggle for independence. i) Presented competing ideologies for discussion in the marketplace of ideas. ii) Benjamin Franklin (1) Newspaper in Philadelphia (2) Helped found a public library system
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(3) By financing printers so they could start bookshops and printing establishments in growing cities. iii) Stamp act (1) Colonists argued that they had no say in whether or how the war should be fought and therefore should not have to pay the tax. (a) Most printers were notoriously patriotic (b) Colonists readily exercised their own control of public opinion by suppressing unpopular opinions. 4) The Fight for Political Dominance a) 1791 Bill of rights added to ensure civil liberties. i) Right to assemble chose religion, to speak and write freely, and to be tried fairly. b) Journalists, often members of the social elite and appointed by a politician, helped establish the function of the press in a newly created democratic society. i) Established the rights of journalist to comment on political competition c) Dark ages of journalism i) Anti-federalist Benjamin Franklin Bache ii) Period when the republic was formed and reporters and editors were highly partisan in their efforts to build a new political system. (1) “A free press was one of the first safeguards of liberty” d) Alien and Sedition Act i) Federalist laws passed in 1798 to restrict freedom of information. They were used to quell political dissent. (1) Made it possible to indict those who print false or malicious writing against
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10: Journalism 1) Journalism in...

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