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Unformatted text preview: Exam 3 Study Guide 1 TE 150 Exam 3 Study Guide Theme 3: Learning And Development Happens In A Social Context Theme 4: Learning Can Be Strategic The Exam: Exam #3 focuses only on Theme 3 "Learning Happens In A Social Context" and Theme 4 "Learning Can Be Strategic." It consists of matching (10 questions worth 2 points each), short answer (4 questions worth 10 points each), and essay (1 question worth 40 points) questions based on the lessons covered in Themes 3 and 4. Matching questions will consist largely of brief scenarios that you will need to match with ideas/terms we have been studying. Shortanswer questions will be similar to the scenarios you see in the sample matching section below, except they will ask you to analyze each scenario using specific ideas we have been studying. The essay question will consist of analyzing a minicase using specific ideas that we have been studying, so the essay is similar to a larger shortanswer question. Thus, the exam will largely emphasize the application of what we have been learning throughout Themes 3 and 4, including recognizing, identifying, and explaining these ideas given reallife (i.e., "authentic") scenarios. You will also want to review your class notes and readings to further your understanding of Themes 3 and 4 concepts and ideas, after you have mastered the content stated in this study guide. The Study Guide: This study guide is organized in the following order. First, a sample of the kind/type of matching questions you might see on the exam is provided. An answer key is provided at the end of this study guide. Second, the key ideas (i.e., "core conceptual content") that you are minimally expected to know and understand are listed by lesson. Most of the concepts are organized around questions below to encourage thinking about the course material more deeply. Recommendation/Suggestion: Preparing for an exam provides an excellent opportunity to develop a deep understanding of what you are learning. Therefore, the following is highly recommended and suggested. Make up your own matching questions and scenarios. Even better, contact a class peer or even several of your classmates and have everyone come up with at least one matching question and one scenario with a question(s) along with answers. You can email these to one another and use them as practice to more deeply understand the various Themes 3 and 4 concepts. By making up questions and scenarios, you are more deeply processing the course concepts and thinking of how you might use or see them in real life as a teacher a great example of encoding via elaborating. And if your questions might happen to contain misconceptions, your peers can help you better clarify your understanding as well as further confirm their own understanding. This is a winwin situation for everyone involved, demonstrating cooperative (not competitive) learning, and it involves a minimal amount of time and effort by everyone but can result in a lot of questions and scenarios as more and more of your peers participate. Exam 3 Study Guide 2 SAMPLE OF THE "TYPE/KIND" OF MATCHING QUESTIONS (Select the answer for the best match) 1. Madison Elementary School is having its annual open house for parents tonight. In preparation for the event, Mr. Brock has his students put the work they've diligently and perseveringly completed and that they're most proud of in a folder on their desks for their parents to see. He also has students' numerous art projects, which he has complimented them on, hanging on the walls. 2. A high school driver education teacher warns his students, "Be sure to stay within the speed limit. After all, there may be a traffic officer lurking in wait when you least expect one." 3. Sylvia is trying to teach Wendy how to do a cartwheel. Sylvia performs several cartwheels in slow motion so that Wendy can see all the steps involved. 4. After unsuccessfully trying for a hour to understand a poem for a class assignment, Ginger reflects on how she was going about this and decides to try a different approach. 5. A fourthgrade teacher asks his students to read an article in a recent issue of Time magazine. He describes the main point of the article before his students begin reading it, and he gives them several questions that they should try to answer as they read. Even so, the students are unable to understand what they are reading. 6. As Jimmy is learning to tie his own shoes, he initially repeats the instructions his mother has taught him and eventually says them in his head. 7. Although she has never been to school, Rita is excited because this is her first day in kindergarten. Most of her classmates attended preschool, so they already know the rules. When it was time for recess, Mrs. Jenka told the blue table that they could line up by the door. She complimented them on how nicely they walked not ran to get in line. When her table was told to line up, Rita deliberately walked slowly. 8. Roger, a high school sophomore, gets visibly angry when he sees several "skinheads" taunt an African American classmate. "Racism is wrong," he personally believes. "Everyone on this planet is equal. We are all entitled to human dignity and the respect of our fellow human beings." 9. Freshman Donna, new to the high school debate team, is in awe of senior Dennis, who has been on the debate team for over three years. She marvels at how easily he is able to quickly identify the strengths and weaknesses of any position on an issue, see the flaws in his opponents' reasoning, and successfully respond to any objection he is unexpectedly confronted with about his own position on an issue. ***See the end of this study guide for an answer key to the above matching questions*** ****Although there are no Theme 4 matching examples above, there will be on the exam**** _____ A. Internalization _____ B. Universal Ethical Principle _____ C. Expertise _____ D. Modeling _____ E. Industry vs. Inferiority _____ F. Zone of Proximal Development _____ G. Metacognition _____ H. Preconventional Level _____ I. Observational Learning Exam 3 Study Guide 3 THEME 3: LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT HAPPENS IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT Lesson 1: Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development Core Conceptual Content: According to Vygotsky, how does learning occur? Through the Internalization of Cultural Tools Within the Zone of Proximal Development using Scaffolding and Fading Cultural Tools and Internalization What are "cultural tools"? Conventions or objects handed down to us (i.e., we don't need to invent them) A concept, symbol, words, strategy, or other culturebased mechanism that helps us think and act more effectively Examples: A ruler is a cultural tool for measuring Algorithm for addition with carrying is a cultural tool for calculation Language is the granddaddy of all cultural tools What are some key ideas about "internalization"? We tend to internalize cultural tools and make them our own Three stages of internalization Imitation without understanding Selfguidance (often using private speech) Internalization (usually via inner speech or even almost without thinking about). When is "private speech" often used and what does it tell us about thinking? Children (and even adults) use when: Tasks are difficult After making errors When confused If have a disability Thus, language (a cultural tool) becomes the medium of our thought So: Cultural tools come from social contexts Internalization moves from the social context to within oneself, making it one's own How Thinking and Learning Occur Sharing The Thinking Load Guided Participation by a more competent person or artifact (such as a book, interactive program, CD/DVD or video tape, etc) Exam 3 Study Guide 4 Explain Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development, including its key components Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Actual Developmental Level (ADL) Potential Developmental Level (PDL) Scaffolding More competent person (i.e, teacher, peer, parent) helping a less competent person Fading More competent person slowly withdraws their help as the learner is able to do more of the task and/or thinking on their own Lesson 2: Observational Learning Core Conceptual Content: What do the Bobo doll experiments reveal about learning? Teach & Learn by observing others Teach by modeling Learn by imitating (and even if don't imitate) Vicarious reinforcement and punishment Reinforcement and punishment do not always have to be used or be used directly to influence behavior That is, learning can be indirect (i.e., vicarious reinforcement and/or punishment) What factors make observational learning more likely to work (be able to explain each and provide examples)? Models & Modeling use models that are competent use models with prestige and power use high status models use same sex models use unusual models who will grab students' attention use warm friendly people as models use models that are memorablevivid characters, models with unusual but attractive appearance actually model the behavior rather than describe it Imitating don't assume students can immediately imitatethey may have limited motor skills provide training/coaching in the motor skills needed to do the imitation What can act as a model? Peers, family, media, teachers, community members Exam 3 Study Guide 5 Identify and explain the 4 processes of observational learning (see reading): Attention Retention Production Motivation Explain Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory 3 Key Components Person/Cognitive, Behavior, & Environment Reciprocal causation The above 3 components influence each other Lesson 3: Erikson's Psychosocial Theory Core Conceptual Content: According to Erikson's theory, how does psychological (i.e., ego identity) development happen? In a social context Throughout one's lifespan What counts as "society"? What counts as "society" expands/widens throughout one's lifetime from parents to friends to school and to beyond What is significant about the eight specific crises/conflicts (i.e., "developmental tasks") between individual/self needs & society's needs? Are inevitable Have either positive or negative outcomes Are the mechanisms by which our ego identity is shaped What is important to remember about the outcome of each crisis/conflict? The outcome of each crisis/conflict has longlasting consequences For example, an unsuccessful resolution of a crisis/conflict from a previous stage often reappears as problems in the future As teachers, how can Erikson's stage theory be useful to us? As teachers, we need to be aware that students in our classrooms are often dealing with one or more of the eight crises/conflicts as developmental tasks. For instance: They may be negotiating the crisis/conflict of the current stage they are in Negative outcomes from previous crises of prior stages often reappear as problems Thus, a teacher's actions & attitudes could affect an unresolved crisis/developmental task In other words, we could either be part of a successful or unsuccessful resolution of a stage crisis/conflict, having longlasting results Erikson's theory can alert us to structuring teaching & learning so as to promote productive and avoid unproductive psychosocial development So, according to Erikson's theory, psychological (i.e., ego identity) development happens... Through the resolution of a significant crisis/conflict at each stage between an individual's needs and society's needs (i.e., in a social context) Exam 3 Study Guide 6 Be familiar with the chart below (stages 15) as well as strategies to encourage successful resolution of crises & developmental tasks, as we discussed in class Erickson's 8 Stage Psychosocial Theory Name of Stage Crisis (Key Dev Task) Positive Outcome (Virtues) Trust others Trust vs.Mistrust Infancy To learn whether or not other people regularly satisfy basic needs (i.e., others are dependable & reliable) a feeling of comfort and minimal fear requires warm, nurturing caregiving Negative Outcome (Maladaptations) Mistrust others (i.e., the world is an undependable, unpredictable, & possibly dangerous place) a feeling of insecurity may occur when treated too negatively or are ignored Autonomy vs.Shame & Doubt Autonomy Shame & Doubt about ability to handle problems may result if demand too much too soon, refuse to let them perform tasks of which they are capable, or ridicule early attempts at selfsufficiency Primary caregivers (Mother, Father) Significant Relationships Primary caregivers (Mother, Father) Toddler To learn whether they are capable (i.e., a sense of being able to handle of satisfying some of their own many problems on their own) needs (such as feed themselves, wash & dress themselves, use the bathroom) Initiative vs.Guilt Initiative Preschool To learn whether they are capable of choosing more challenging activities that are reasonable and accomplishing them Guilt about needs & desires (i.e., independence in planning & undertaking activities) Family may result if adults discourage the pursuit of independent activities or dismiss them as silly and bothersome Inferiority about their capabilities Industry Industry vs.Inferiority To develop selfconfidence Elementary School Years (i.e., being diligent, persevering at tasks may result if ridiculed or punished for the until completed, and putting work efforts or if they find they are incapable of before pleasure = competence) meeting their teachers' & parents' expectations may result from being encouraged to make and do things and then praise for their accomplishments Teachers, Parents, & Peers Exam 3 Study Guide 7 Identity (i.e., a sense of who one is and where one's life is heading) Role Confusion (i.e., mixed ideas & feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society) thus, may experiment with a variety of behaviors & activities, such as tinkering with cars, babysitting, affiliating with certain political or religious groups Intimacy vs.Isolation To make longterm commitments to others Young Adulthood occurs after establishing one's identity To form positive close relationships with others Generativity Generativity vs.Stagnation Middle Age To contribute to society & help guide future generations (i.e., a sense of productivity & accomplishment) may achieve by raising a family, working toward the betterment of society, etc Integrity Integrity vs.Despair Retirement Retrospection looking back on life and accomplishments (i.e., feelings of contentment and integrity results if believe have led a happy, productive life may result if believe that one's life has been a disappointment and filled with unachieved goals Stagnation (i.e., a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity) may result because one is selfcentered and unable or unwilling to help society move forward Despair Household, Work mates Intimacy (i.e., capable of forming intimate, reciprocal relationships (such as in marriage or close friendships) & willingly make appropriate sacrifices & compromises) Isolation (i.e., unable to form intimate relationships,) maybe because of one's own reluctance or inability to forego the satisfaction of their own needs Identify vs.Role Confusion Adolescence To develop a sense of identity Peers Romantic Partner &/or Close Friends Exam 3 Study Guide 8 Lesson 4: Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory Core Conceptual Content: Be able to identify what level and stage in Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development a moral reason may be categorized as: Preconventional (What's best for oneself oneself depending on whether someone will reward, punish, or exchange favors) Conventional (What society says is right or wrong) Postconventional (Selfchosen/developed, abstract principles about right & wrong) Morality is internal, not based on external standards Internal standards are imposed by others Moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards & punishments Obedience & PunishmentAvoidance Exchange of Favors Good Boy/Nice Girl (trying to please) Law & Order Social Contract Universal Ethical Principles What is "morality"? Morality has to do with what is right and wrong According to Kohlberg, how does moral development happen? Moral development happens through social interaction about the moral reasoning of the next highest stage Thus, moral development happens in a social context How does moral development progress, according to Kohlberg? Moral development progresses through a sequence of 6 stages in order (i.e., 1, 2, 3, etc) Individuals don't seem to skip stages (except maybe from stage 4 to stage 6) Sometimes individuals may be transitioning from one stage to the next higher stage For example, they may sometimes give reasons based on stage 3 while at other times use stage 4 moral reasoning Exam 3 Study Guide 9 How does culture affect moral development? The specific content of a stage may differ between cultures, but the general form/structure of a stage's moral reasoning does not seem to differ For instance, the moral reasoning in one culture for not stealing something may be because one might have to go in timeout or prison while in another culture it might be because one might have their hand cut off Although the content in this example differs between cultures (time out or prison versus losing a hand), the general form/structure of moral reasoning is the same to avoid punishment What is "social interaction" and how does it affect moral development? Social interaction = discussions, debates, etc. Social interaction seems to act as a mechanism for moral conceptual change The reason is because social interaction can create "disequilibrium," resulting in an individual "accommodating" and, thus, changing their current moralreasoning schema/stage Stage change/progression seems to work best when the social interaction is only 1 stage higher It seems that individuals usually can only understand and accommodate 1 moral stage above their current moral stage Consequently, discussing stage 4 reasoning with someone in stage 1 or 2 would most likely not result in a stage change What are some strategies to promote moral development in the classroom? Emphasize consideration of others' needs Model moral and prosocial (i.e., doing things for the benefit of others) behavior Identify & encourage positive classroom behavior Facilitate perspectivetaking Foster altruism in classroom activities So, according to Kohlberg's theory, moral development happens... Through social interaction (i.e., in a social context) about the moral reasoning of the next highest stage Exam 3 Study Guide 10 THEME 4: LEARNING CAN BE STRATEGIC Lesson 1: Processing Strategies Core Conceptual Content: Why is it important to develop "processing strategies?" There is only so much learners can process at one time because STM has limited cognitive capacity Miller's 72 Processing strategies help us overcome our limited cognitive capacity Effective learners develop and use processing strategies Be able to identify, explain, and apply the different processing strategies that we discussed The different processing strategies that we discussed were: MOVER Chunking Automaticity Offloading Also, be able to discuss how these different processing strategies vary in the effectiveness and effort required Be able to explain how processing strategies tend to develop As children develop, they tend to use more sophisticated processing strategies Example: Rehearsing Organizing Elaborating As children develop, they use processing strategies more consistently and efficiently How does culture affect the development of processing strategies? Most research on processing strategies comes from studies of middle class people in Western countries In other cultures: Processing strategies tend not to develop in people who do not receive formal schooling Learning rarely requires processing lists of information as we do in school Lesson 2: Attention Control Core Conceptual Content: Why do learners need to develop attention strategies such as controlling their attention? We have a limited capacity for attention We manage limited attention resources by controlling where we focus our attention But once this limit is reached, no more information can be taken in Thus, we have change blindness Whatever we can't attend to tends to fall by the wayside without our knowing it In a real sense, we become blind to sensory changes that are not the focus of our attention Exam 3 Study Guide 11 What might change blindness have to do with the classroom? Students may not see or hear the material that is presented if there are too many distractions in the room Much more difficult for younger students to notice changes because they have less attention control than adults In a chaotic environment, the child a teacher is yelling at to stop may seem to ignore them but, in fact, has no more resources left with which to hear Kids with ADHD probably experience change blindness 24/7 What are some ways children can strategically allocate their attention resources wisely? By blocking out (i.e., suppressing) irrelevant information By directing attention toward relevant information What is cognitive inhibition and why is it important for attention? Cognitive inhibition is the ability to stop oneself from thinking about or doing something. It allows us to focus on information to process Without cognitive inhibition, our attention will be controlled by movement, intensity, and change/novelty How does attention develop during childhood and adolescence? Controlling attention and allocating attention strategically tends to improve from childhood well into adolescence Be able to identify and developmentally explain the following kinds of attention (see reading) Sustained attention Selective attention Divided attention Lesson 3: Developmental Changes in Strategy Use Core Conceptual Content: Q1: How does strategy use develop? "Strategy use" develops in a predictable fourstage sequence Production Deficiency Know a strategy but don't know when to use it Typical of preschool kids Control Deficiency Know a strategy and sometimes use it at the right time, but at other times do not use it when appropriate Thus, inconsistent use Sometimes revert to less effect strategies Other times don't use a strategy at all Typical of children in the early grades Exam 3 Study Guide 12 Utilization Deficiency Consistently use the right strategy at the right time However, this doesn't lead to better performance at the task It's like this uses up all their resources just coming up with the right strategy Continues into middle childhood Effective Use Consistently use the right strategy at the right time AND this leads to better performance Usually occurs by middle school NOTE: These 4 stages are not fixed The ages can shift around depending on the task If a task is challenging enough, even adults go through all 4 stages Q2: What leads learners to switch from one strategy to another? One thing is the speedaccuracy tradeoff Tasks sometimes require speed while at other times requires accuracy Learners tend to tailor their strategies to the task Tend to try to expend the least amount of effort needed to complete a task Therefore, they tend to select a strategy that requires the least effort for a given task This is just smart for survival This may even be done unconsciously For instance, learners often execute strategies without a careful analysis first (because this, too, would take effort) A second thing is Siegler's overlapping waves model Siegler observed that as kids' strategies developed, often at least two strategies tended to overlap in use like "overlapping waves" The one they currently use the most and the new one they are beginning to use at times Tendency to revert to an old strategy if unsure about using a newer strategy to solve a problem, even if the old strategy is less efficient When map the frequency of each strategy being used over developmental time, there is a bunch of overlapping waves Overlapping because more than one strategy is being used at any one time Waves because the freq1uencies for each strategy peak at different times How he came to his "overlapping waves" conclusion (i.e., his research) Siegler tracked the development of addition strategies in 57 year olds Siegler observed a fourstage strategy developmental sequence "Fingers" strategy "Counting on" strategy "Min" strategy Retrieval strategy Exam 3 Study Guide 13 "Fingers" Strategy Solve the problem on their fingers Hold up 2 fingers on one hand and 4 fingers on the other hand Then count all the fingers (123456) Is this strategy fast? Sort of probably faster than learning to recall the answer Is it accurate? Yes especially if aren't sure of math facts Is it effortful? Kind of would you want to do this every time you had to add? "Counting On" Strategy After a while, kids discovered this strategy Start counting at 2 Then count 3456 while putting up a finger for each count to keep track of when they get to 4 Is this strategy fast? Faster than counting 6 fingers Is it accurate? Probably as equally accurate as "fingers" strategy Is it effortful? Maybe a little less than "fingers" strategy, but still effortful compared with recall "Min" Strategy Finally, kids discover this smart strategy They do "counting on" strategy but always starting with the larger number, regardless of its order in the problem So, start counting from 4 while holding up 2 fingers (56) Called "min" because hold up the "minimum" number of fingers Is this strategy fast? Definitely the fastest way to count on fingers Is it accurate? Probably as equally accurate as "counting on" strategy Is it effortful? Yes, but minimally for counting using one's finger "Retrieval" strategy While doing the previous 3 strategies, kids are exposed to the corresponding math facts Math facts get easier and easier to retrieve Eventually, kids no longer use fingers strategies because "retrieving" math facts becomes the fastest, least effortful, and accurate strategy Exam 3 Study Guide 14 Q3: What helps learners become more strategic? Metacognition Definition Being aware of one's thinking Managing/regulating one's own thinking A prerequisite for strategy use Is also one of the reasons that cognitive inhibition improves Lesson 4: Expertise Core Conceptual Content: What are experts better at than novices (be able to briefly explain each)? Adaptive expertise Detecting features & meaningful patterns Organization & depth of knowledge Use effective learning strategies Effortless retrieval of important information What do experts do that novices often don't do in the process of learning? Regularly review what they learn Distribute learning over a longer period rather than cramming Crisscross what they are learning Selfquestioning & selfexplaining Take good notes Summarizing, outlining, concept maps Use a study system Such as PQ4R What does it take to become an expert? Deliberative Practice At an appropriate level of difficulty Receive corrective feedback Opportunities for repetition High Motivation To study & practice long hours To persevere Talent Some psychologists believe expertise also requires talent Deliberative practice & high motivation alone probably not result in Mozart & Tiger Woods' achievements But talent alone does not make an expert Exam 3 Study Guide 15 Is subject knowledge enough to make a good teacher? Why or why not? Content Knowledge is not enough Also need Pedagogical Content Knowledge Understand common challenges students often have when learning various aspects of a particular subject Know strategies that can help students overcome the above learning challenges Understand ways that usually help students learn various aspects of a particular subject Answer Key For Matching Questions At The Beginning of This Study Guide 6 8 9 3 1 5 4 2 7 A. Internalization B. Universal Ethical Principle C. Expertise D. Modeling E. Industry vs. Inferiority F. Zone of Proximal Development G. Metacognition H. Preconventional Level I. Observational Learning ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course TE 150 taught by Professor Palmer during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '08