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Unformatted text preview: and procedurally rational behavior. Among the limits to rationality are the fact that we can formulate, analyze, and interpret only a restricted amount of information; can devote only a limited amount of time to decision-making; and can become involved in many more activities than we can effectively consider and cope with simultaneously. We must therefore necessarily focus attention only on a portion of the major competing concerns. The direct effect of these is the presence of cognitive bias in information acquisition and processing and the use of cognitive heuristics for evaluation of alternatives. Although in many cases these cognitive heuristics will be flawed, this is not necessarily so. One of the hoped-for results of the use of systems engineering approaches is the development of effective and efficient heuristics for enhanced judgment and choice through effective decision support systems. 30 There are many cognitive biases prevalent in most information-acquisition activities. The use of cognitive heuristics and decision rules is also prevalent and necessary to enable us to cope with the many demands on our time. One such heuristic is satisfying or searching for a solution that is "good enough." This may be quite appropriate if the stakes are small. In general, the quality of cognitive heuristics will be task-dependent, and often the use of heuristics for evaluation will be both reasonable and appropriate. Rational decision-making requires time, skill, wisdom, and other resources. It must, therefore, be reserved for the more important decisions. A goal of systems engineering is to enhance information acquisition, processing, and evaluation so that efficient and effective use of information is made in a process that is appropriate to the cognitive styles and time constraints of management. 26.5 SYSTEMDESIGN This section discusses several topics relevant to the design and evaluation of systems. In order to develop our design methodology, we first discuss the purpose and objectives of systems engineering and systems design. Development of performance objectives for quality systems is important, since evaluation of the logical soundness and performance of a system can be determined by measuring achievement of these objectives with and without the system. A discussion of general objectives for quality system design is followed by a presentation of a five-phase design methodology for system design. The section continues with leadership and training requirements for use of the resulting system and the impact of these requirements upon design considerations. While it is doubtless true that not every design process should, could, or would precisely follow each component in the detailed phases outlined here, we feel that this approach to systems design is sufficiently robust and generic that it can be used as a normative model of the design process and as a guide to the structuring and implementation of appropriate systems evaluation practices....
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2010 for the course ME 100 taught by Professor Any during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.
- Spring '10
- Mechanical Engineering