30079_38b

30079_38b - Fig. 38.16 Flow diagram. These handling methods...

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Fig. 38.16 Flow diagram. These handling methods are implemented individually, or in combination, by commercially available material-handling equipment types. 38.5 MATERIAL-HANDLING EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS AND EXAMPLES 38.5.1 Developing the Plan Once the material-handling problem has been identified and the relevant data have been collected and analyzed, the next step in the design process is to develop a plan for solving the problem. This usually involves the design and/or selection of appropriate types, sizes, and capacities of material- handling equipment. In order to properly select material handling equipment, it must be realized that in most cases, the solution to the problem does not consist merely of selecting a particular piece of
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Fig. 38.17 "From-to" chart. hardware, such as a section of conveyor. Rather, handling should be viewed as part of an overall system, with all activities interrelated and meshing together. Only on this basis can the best overall type of equipment or system be planned. This section provides examples of some of the more common types of unit load material handling and storage equipment used in production facilities. 38.5.2 Conveyors Conveyors are generally used to transport materials long distances over fixed paths. Their function may be solely the movement of items from one location in a process or facility to another point, or they may move items through various stages of receiving, processing, assembly, finishing, inspection, packaging, sortation, and shipping. Conveyors used in material handing are of two basic types: 1. Gravity conveyors, including chutes, slides, and gravity wheel or roller conveyors that essen- tially exploit the use of gravity to move items from a point at a relatively high elevation to another point at a lower elevation. As listed in Fig. 38.12, MHI Principle 5 indicates that one should maximize the use of gravity in designing material-handling systems. 2. Powered conveyors, which generally use electric motors to drive belts, chains, or rollers in a variety of in-floor, floor-mounted, or overhead configurations. In general, conveyors are employed in unit material handling when 1. Loads are uniform. 2. Materials move continuously. 3. Routes do not vary. 4. Load is constant. 5. Movement rate is relatively fixed. 6. Cross traffic can be bypassed.
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Fig. 38.18 Activity relationship chart. REASON Material Flow Share Equipment Parts Subassembly Ease of Supervision Noise Avoidance
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Fig. 38.19 Unit load design. 7. Path is relatively fixed. 8. Movement is point-to-point. 9. Automatic counting, sorting, weighing, or dispatching is needed. 10. In-process storage is required. 11. In-process inspection is required. 12. Production pacing is necessary. 13. Process control is required. 14. Controlled flow is needed. 15. Materials are handled at extreme temperatures, or other adverse conditions. 16. Handling is required in a hazardous area. 17. Hazardous materials are handled. 18. Machines are integrated into a system. 19. Robots are integrated into a system. 20. Materials are moved between workplaces. 21. Manual handling and/or lifting is undesirable.
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Fig. 38.20 Example pallet-loading patterns.
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30079_38b - Fig. 38.16 Flow diagram. These handling methods...

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