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PRIORTQJUNE 1987 NOVEMBER 1989 INFORMAL CONTROLS ** INFORMAL CONTROLS (MINIMAL) (STRENGTHENED) INTERPERSONAL MANAGEMENT STYLE & INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS CULTURE RELATIONSHIPS CULTURE ,-„_, . - , . -r -• Constant improvement • Followed formal • Minimum complaints • Teams structure exper.enced by dept • Cells . Shar ^ d experiences • Networks , Customer orientation • Participative INFORMAL CONTROL PROCESS FORMAL CONTROL PROCESS • Constant search for improvement • Minimal search for alternatives • Concerns oriented/across • Protect area from blame department boundaries • Many improvement processes INFORMAL REWARDS I I INFORMAL COMM. I INFORMAL REWARDS INFORMAL COMM. SYSTEMS SYSTEMS • M,nimal ' Minimal ,nformation * ^cerSe*^ 5 Non-structural exchange between , , ce ™, c * 1 J nc _ Direct departments; by ' tnl ° rmal 9'oups Network supporting nature protective Based on trust I I I Much cust. feedback Fig. 67.13 BSY-1 Informal systems: before and during improvement effort. 67.4 SPECIFIC ISSUES IN THE PROJECT-CONTROL PROCESS 67.4.1 Project-Planning and Control Process: Overview Figure 67.14 summarizes the project-planning and control process. The process provides for planning according to goals and requirements and control by exception. The process is initiated by establishing detailed project requirements, and in meeting them, we simultaneously achieve the goals of a project. Set detailed project requirements (functionality- time-expenditure) V Develop detailed project Report project progress plans (time-expenditure- functionality) i i \ y Authorize project _ , , wor £ Perform functional resource scheduling ii . 1 I Negotiate project budgets Fig. 67.14 Summary of project-control process.
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Detailed requirements are established by preparing a means-end work breakdown structure (WBS), which is a hierarchical subdivision of a project. The WBS provides the framework within which we may establish project requirements and prepare detailed plans for the time, expenditures, and performance variables of the project. Once all end items (purposes and subpurposes) of the project have been established, the next step of the process requires logical, consistent, and coordinated plans to achieve the end items of the project. Network analysis provides a tool for identifying functional activities that must be performed to achieve a lowest-level end of the WBS. That is, in putting together the detailed plans for a complex project, we begin at a level of detail where we can identify functional activities with which we have had some prior experience and in this way break up the novel task into its known elements. This process tends to reduce the novelty of a complex project. Network plans and the WBS provide the basis for estimating the expenditures of a project. Labor,
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