ocs ch 6-11 - 1 Oceanography Study Guide Chapter 6 Physical...

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Oceanography Study Guide Chapter 6: Physical Properties of Water and Seawater Polar Molecule: Water molecules are polar. Polarity allows it to hydrogen bond as well as to easily dissolve other compounds. Heat Capacity: A measure of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°C. Heat capacity is highest in water except for ammonia. Water can absorb or release large amounts of heat while changing relatively little in temperature. Absorption: When light is absorbed, molecules vibrate and the light’s electromagnetic energy is converted to heat. UV is absorbed by O3. Blue and green absorb the most light. Reflection: The reflection of progressive waves by a vertical barrier. Reflection occurs with little loss of energy. Refraction: The bending of waves. Waves are refracted toward regions of low speed. The refractive index of water increases with increasing salinity. Light and Sound: Light and sound are both wave phenomena. The speed of sound decreases with temperature and increases with pressure. Shorter wavelengths are bluer, longer wavelengths are redder. Sound intensity decreases as it travels through seawater because of spreading, scattering, and absorption. SOFAR Channel: Sound Fixing And Ranging. The layer in which sound waves travel at minimum speed. Near 1,200 m in the North Atlantic or 600 m in the North Pacific. Sound transmission is particularly efficient because refractions tend to keep sound waves within the layer. Photic Zone: The thin film of lighted water at the top of the surface zone. All production of food by photosynthetic marine organisms takes place in this thin, warm surface. Layers of the Ocean: The shadow zone is the thin, high-sound-velocity layer, which forms at a depth of about 80 m. It deflects sound and is a good place for submarines to hide from sonar. 1
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Pycnocline: The middle zone of the ocean in which density increases rapidly with depth. Temperature falls and salinity rises in this zone. Thermocline: The zone of the ocean in which temperature decreases rapidly with depth. Chapter 7: Chemistry of Seawater Salinity: The salinity of a sample of seawater is defined as the amount of dissolved solids (in grams) in one kilogram of seawater. Salinity is determined by its conductivity. The heat capacity of water decreases with increasing salinity. As salinity increases, the freezing point of water decreases.
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