chap24 - BIOL 3362 Biochemistry II y Candas Chapter 24...

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IOL 3362 BIOL 3362 Biochemistry II Candas Chapter 24 LIPID BIOSYNTHESIS Garrett & Grisham
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OUTLINE Pathways of lipid synthesis in biological systems atty Acids Synthesis Fatty Acids Synthesis Synthesis of Complex Lipids Eicosanoids; function and synthesis Cholesterol Synthesis Lipid Transport Throughout the Body Biosynthesis of Bile Acids y Synthesis of Steroid Hormones
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Lipid Catabolism - overview Fatty esters gets hydrolyzed into free fatty acids + glycerol by lipases. Ester hydrolysis occurs in the cytosol. Fatty acid is "activated" with the help of ATP to form a thioester bond with CoA at the acid A process called beta-oxidation breaks down the fatty-CoA, 2 carbons at a time, to make acetyl CoA. xidation occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria β -oxidation occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. β -oxidation produces acetyl CoA and also FADH2 and NADH. The acetyl CoA feeds into the Krebs cycle, and the FADH2 and NADH feed into the ETC. n a per gram basis fats give the more energy than any other food On a per gram basis, fats give the more energy than any other food source.
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Biosynthesis and Degradation lycolysis/gluconeogenesis Pathways follow Different routes glycolysis/gluconeogenesis – glycogen synthesis/breakdown tty acid synthesis/degradation – fatty acid synthesis/degradation
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Biosynthesis and Degradation here are four major differences between Pathways follow Different routes There are four major differences between fatty acid breakdown and biosynthesis: • Intermediates in synthesis are linked to -SH groups of acyl carrier proteins (as compared to - SH groups of CoA) •S ynthesis in cytosol; breakdown in mitochondria • Enzymes of synthesis are one polypeptide • Biosynthesis uses NADPH/NADP + ; breakdown uses NADH/NAD +
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Biosynthesis vs Degradation f fatty acids of fatty acids β -oxidation Fatty acid synthesis Pathway location Mitochondrial matrix cytosol Acyl carriers (thiols) Coenzyme-A Phosphopantetheine CP) & c steine (ACP) & cysteine e - acceptors/donor FAD & NAD + NADPH 2-C product/donor Acetyl-CoA Malonyl-CoA (& acetyl-CoA) -OH intermediate LD
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FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS The input to fatty acid synthesis is acetyl-CoA, hich is carboxylated to H 3 CCS C o A O which is carboxylated to malonyl-CoA. ATP-dependent acetyl-CoA carboxylation provides energy input. he CO lost later CH CS C o A O OOC The CO 2 is lost later during condensation with the growing fatty acid. 2 malonyl-CoA The spontaneous decarboxylation drives the condensation reaction.
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Activation by Malonyl-CoA cetate Units are Activated for Transfer in Fatty Acetate Units are Activated for Transfer in Fatty Acid Synthesis by Malonyl-CoA •F a t t y acids are built from 2-C units - acetyl-CoA • Acetate units are activated for transfer by conversion to malonyl-CoA • Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA and reducing power of NADPH drive chain growth • Chain grows to 16-carbons • Other enzymes add double bonds and more Cs
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Acetyl-CoA sources hat are the sources?
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chap24 - BIOL 3362 Biochemistry II y Candas Chapter 24...

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