chap27 - BIOL 3362 Biochemistry II y METABOLIC INTEGRATION...

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IOL 3362 BIOL 3362 Biochemistry II METABOLIC INTEGRATION AND PECIALIZATION OF ORGANS SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS
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he metabolism can be portrayed as three interconnected functional systems METABOLISM The metabolism can be portrayed as three interconnected functional systems 1- Catabolism – Principal pathways including glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation, and pentose phosphate pathway. Foods are xidized to produce energy (ATP). oxidized to produce energy (ATP). 2- Anabolism – Reactions that produce various biochemicals in cells, including fatty acids, amino acids, certain carbohydrates and many others. Metabolic intermediates re used in complex biosynthetic reactions. are used in complex biosynthetic reactions. 3- Macromolecular synthesis – Biochemicals such as amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, and certain carbohydrates that are obtained from the diet or made by anabolic athways are either polymerized into macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, pathways are either polymerized into macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides) or assembled into structures (membranes) that accumulate to produce growth. http://media.wwnorton.com/cms/excerpts/discovering-biology-lab8.pdf
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METABOLIC INTEGRATION
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he three stages of cellular METABOLIC INTEGRATION The three stages of cellular metabolism lead from food to waste products in animal cells. This series of reactions roduces ATP which is then produces ATP, which is then used to drive biosynthetic reactions and other energy- requiring processes in the cell. Stage 1 mostly occurs outside cells––although special organelles called lysosomes can digest large molecules in the cell interior. Stage 2 occurs mainly in the cytosol, except for the final step f conversion of pyruvate to of conversion of pyruvate to acetyl groups on acetyl CoA, which occurs in mitochondria. Stage 3 occurs in mitochondria.
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Block diagram of intermediary metabolism
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CIRCADIAN RHYTHM AND METABOLISM Over 2000 genes are turned on and off during sleep. Many of these genes belong to a broad category of proteins are involved in macromolecular synthesis, suggesting that sleep is needed to rebuild e molecules that are essential for cell nction the molecules that are essential for cell function. The circadian system orchestrates the temporal organization of many aspects of physiology, including metabolism, in synchrony with the 24 hr tation of the Earth rotation of the Earth. Like the metabolic system, the circadian system is a complex feedback network that involves interactions between the central nervous system nd peripheral tissues and peripheral tissues. Emerging evidence suggests that circadian regulation is intimately linked to metabolic homeostasis and that dysregulation of circadian rhythms can ontribute to disease contribute to disease.
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2010 for the course BIOL 3362 taught by Professor Candas during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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chap27 - BIOL 3362 Biochemistry II y METABOLIC INTEGRATION...

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