lect3_architecture

lect3_architecture - Glenn Reinman Glenn Reinman Department...

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Unformatted text preview: Glenn Reinman Glenn Reinman Department of Computer Science University of California, Los Angeles Nodes on the Internet Nodes on the Internet What is a computer? a programmable usually electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data Early Computers Early Computers E N I A C S S E M E D S A C Early Supercomputers Early Supercomputers C r a y- 1 In 1975 reached 80 MFLOPS Modern Supercomputers Modern Supercomputers IBM Blue Gene/L 65,536 dual-processor PowerPC nodes Peak Speed 360 Teraflops General Purpose Computers General Purpose Computers Handle variety of different applications Different domains Mobile Desktop Server Embedded Systems Embedded Systems Special-purpose system Computer is embedded in the device it controls Pre-defined tasks Easier to refine size/cost/power Lots of variety in sophistication Routers Microwave ovens Cell phones Embedded vs General Purpose Line is blurring Where would you classify handhelds? Forces that Evolve Computers Forces that Evolve Computers Instruction Set Architecture Applications Operating System Compiler Machine Organization Physical Design Performance Performance source: Intel Area Area source: Intel Website "doubling of transistor density on a manufactured die every year" Power Power What is power? Energy is measured in Joules Power is rate of energy consumption Joules per second (Watts) Power Density - power/area Why do we care about this? Californias energy crisis? Power is dissipated as heat Heat is hard to get rid of! Workstation processor might use 70 Watts Limits how densely components can be packaged Battery power is limited Power Power Fred Pollack, MICRO 32, 1999 Pentium 4 (Prescott) 2.8 GHz 100W 2004 Pentium 4 (Tejas) 2.8 GHz 130-150W 2005 End of our reliance on aggressive frequency scaling? CANCELLED! CANCELLED! Intel Intel s Right Hand Turn s Right Hand Turn Performance Performance Rise of Chip Multiprocessors Rise of Chip Multiprocessors Rise of the Un Rise of the Un-- Core?...
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lect3_architecture - Glenn Reinman Glenn Reinman Department...

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