lect8_graphicsandvision - Computer Graphics and Computer...

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Unformatted text preview: Computer Graphics and Computer Vision Professor Demetri Terzopoulos Graphics and Vision: A Unified View This major field is about Computers and Images Computer Graphics (CG) Computational models images and videos Synthesis Forward problem Computer Vision (CV) Images and videos computational models Analysis Inverse problem Page History of Computer Graphics and Computer Vision Two PhD projects at MIT in the early 1960s Ivan E. Sutherland, 1963 "Sketchpad, a man-machine graphical communication system" mansystem" Lawrence G. Roberts, 1963 "Machine perception of three-dimensional solids" threesolids" CG and CV have developed as independent fields In recent years, CG and CV have started to synergize Exciting synergies and cross-fertilization with other fields Physics, biology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, art, .... art, What is an Image / Video? Array of pixels (one or more numbers) A video is a time sequence of images How they are formed: Objects in the world (static or dynamic) Illumination (light sources) Imaging device (eye, camera) Camera Illumination We want to synthesize and analyze them Page Why? Images and movies are everywhere! Entertainment: Motion pictures & Games Virtual worlds (especially for movies and games) Industrial design Scientific and medical visualization Human-computer interaction HumanFine arts Etc. Robotics Automotive Visual Surveillance / Biometrics Industrial inspection Medical imaging Remote sensing Image and video retreival Etc. For a deeper understanding of the physical world and living systems, including the human brain systems, Computer Graphics The art and science of creating imagery by computer Three main research themes Modeling How do we model (mathematically represent) objects? How do we construct models of specific objects? Animation How do we represent the motions of objects? How do we give animators control of this motion? Rendering How do we simulate the real-world behavior of light? real How do we simulate the formation of images? Page Standard Display Devices CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Plasma Exotic Display Devices Immersive Head-Mounted HeadHead-Mounted Holographic Autostereoscopic Volumetric Page Movies To reality and beyond ! Movies Special effects Page Movies Digital Compositing Page Digital compositing Digital Compositing Page Cartoons Games Focus on interactivity Page Games Computer-Aided Design Precision modeling Engineering visualization Page Computer-Aided Design It's not just about visualization Simulation is also useful Visualization: Scientific Molecular Biology Environmental Physics Page Visualization: Medical Visualization: Architectural http://www.diamondschmitt.com/ Page Visualization: Info Smith and Fiore Graphical User Interfaces Steven Schkolne Page Art Steven Schkolne Scott Snibbe Digital Art Genetically evolved Carl Sims Page Elements of CG The graphics pipeline Modeling Animation Rendering Modeling Representing objects geometrically on a computer Point clouds Texture maps Polygon meshes Surface patches NURBS Parametric curves Page Modeling Alternative representations Voxels Blobs Subdivision surfaces Modeling Altering geometric models Affine transform Ying, Kristjansson, Biermann, Zorin Page Scanning Shapes Digital Michaelangelo Project Plant Modeling P. Prusinkiewicz, Univ. of Calgary Page Plant Modeling Rendering Key elements Camera Illumination Geometric Shape & Reflectance Pixels Page Camera Model Rendering Draw visible surfaces onto display Camera (view direction) Clipping Image Plane Camera (eye position) Scan Conversion Page Reflectance Modeling Reflectance Modeling Diana the Huntress, Henrik Wann Jensen Page Subsurface Scattering Translucency and varied levels of light penetration can be created using created subsurface scattering effects (nVIDIA) (nVIDIA) Rendering Non-photorealistic rendering Aaron Hertzmann Page Rendering: Information Agrawala and Stolte Mapblast.com Animation Keyframe animation Keyframing Page Animation Motion capture Animating Golem in LOTR Page Animation Physical simulation Dynamics R. Fedkiw et al., Stanford U. "Atlanta in Motion" J. Hodgins, et al., Georgia Tech Page NBC - Los Angeles Coverage of Prof. Petros Faloutsos' digital stuntman Falling Sideways Page Falling Backward, Rolling Over, Rising, and Balancing in Gravity Help, I've fallen! ... and I can get up! Rising From a Supine Position Page Virtual Celebrity Virtual Celebrity Productions, LLC Facial Anatomy Muscle Model Skin Model Epidermis Dermis Muscle Layer Page Real-Time Facial Simulation Neck-Head-Face Animation Page Animation Behavioral animation Ethology Evolved Virtual Creatures Karl Sims, 1994 Genetic algorithms Mimic biological evolution Page Animation The Animatrix "Final Flight of the Osiris" Osiris" Reality is *Very* Complex Page Virtual Reality Artificial life and other natural phenomena Discuss later... Many Open Research Problems How to model/render/animate a complex scene? Page Computer Vision Related fields Image processing Pattern recognition Visual perception Image understanding True IU seems to involve a great deal of human intelligence Automated systems are still far from human performance Some good solutions in constrained special cases (e.g., inspection: IC manufacturing, circuit boards) Inverse problems are generally tougher to solve WHAT DO YOU SEE? Page AND NOW? Vision Research Themes Edge and region extraction Image segmentation Visual reconstruction: From images to surfaces Shape from X Contours Shading Stereo Motion Object tracking Object recognition (including faces) Event and activity recognition Page Interactive Image Analysis Using Snakes Retinal Angiogram Segmentation Page Cartographic Modeling: Rivers P. Fua. Fast, Accurate and Consistent Modeling of Drainage and Surrounding Terrain. International Journal of Computer Vision, 1998. Cartographic Modeling: Buildings and Roads Page Automated Image Retreival Find pictures of the Sydney opera house in a large database on the web Space Robotics: Mars Rover Page Visual Servoing Tom Drummond, Univ. of Cambridge Model-Based Heart Motion Tracking Page 3D Reconstruction From image(s) to model(s) Inverting 3D projection Image-based modeling Image- 3D model Viewpoint Image Human Modeling from Video M. Dimitrijevic, S. Ilic, and P. Fua CVPR'04, S. Ilic, and P. Fua PAMI'06 Dimitrijevic, Ilic, CVPR' Ilic, PAMI' Page Performance-Based Animation [Pighin, Szeliski, Salezin, 1999] Performance-Based Animation [Pighin, Szeliski, Salezin, 1999] Page ALife Modeling Pyramid Computational model of animals and humans Cognition Learning Behavior Perception Physics Biomechanics / Locomotion An Artificial Fish Model Body Innate Characteristics Action Selection Brain Learning Behavior Routines Sensors ! ... ... ... Optimization Motor Controllers ... Perception Behavior Biomechanical Model Motor Display Model Page ALife Characters in Interactive Games These autonomous characters are ""alive"" "Nintendogs" (2005) CyberLife's "Creatures" (1996) Page ALife for Vision Deformable organisms for automated medical image segmentation Memory and prior knowledge Perception Brain Plan or schedule Interactions with other creatures Perceptual attention mechanism Muscle actuation causes shape deformation S ke le to n Sensors Underlying medial based Shape representation Muscles and limbs body lower/left genu N-2 upper/right fornix splenium rostrum N-1 N 3 2 1 Self-Animating Virtual Pedestrians In a Virtual Train Station (Wei Shao) Shao) Autonomous pedestrian behavior Concourses Main Waiting Room Old Penn Station in NYC Page Virtual Vision (Faisal Qureshi) Qureshi) Visual sensor networks CS Faculty Conducting CG and CV Research Petros Faloutsos (CG) Stanley Osher (CV) Stefano Soatto (CV) Demetri Terzopoulos (CG & CV) Song-Chun Zhu (CV) Song- Page Courses Offered CS 174A Introduction to Computer Graphics CS 174B Image-Based Modeling and Rendering CS 174C Computer Animation Plus several graduate courses in graphics and vision Artificial Life for Computer Graphics and Vision Machine Vision Humanoid Character Simulation Building an Autonomous Robot Etc. Thank you! Page ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2010 for the course CS 1 taught by Professor Rohr during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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