Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Middle Childhood Social and...

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Chapter 10 Middle Childhood – Social and Personality Development Middle childhood extends from 6 to 12 years old. Page 346 Middle childhood corresponds with the industry v. inferiority psychsocial stage, which is where they focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges their parents and peers put into motion, i.e. boy scouts, sports, academics. They have a strong need for adult approval. There is a shift that takes place between the ages of 6 and 11. At six a child’s self-concept is based primarily on their physical attributes. They tend to describe themselves in terms of how fast they can run, or how well they can ride a bike. By 11 years old the shift is more along psychological traits. They will tell you that they are pretty smart, friendly and helpful. These psychological inner traits are more abstract than their physical self-concept. They start to think in terms of what they are good at and on things they aren’t good at. Their self-concept becomes more realistic. As children get older their views of self become more differentiated, comprising several personal and academic areas. So our self-concept involves our physical self-concept, social, emotional, and academic self-concept. Your social self-concept is the view you have of yourself in relation to significant others. Bottom page 349 Your ability to see yourself as someone with specific positive and negative characteristics is your self-esteem. It’s your overall specific positive and negative self-evaluation. A person high in self-esteem accepts their shortcomings. As well as their strengths. A person with low self-esteem isn’t as emotionally accepting of their faults.
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So self-concept deals with how your think about yourself and self-esteem deals with how you feel about yourself. Generally, the self-esteem of most children tends to increase during middle childhood, with a brief decline around 12. Many things can cause this dip but most likely it’s caused by the transition from elementary school to middle school. Children/people with chronic low self-esteem have a difficult cycle to break. Because of low self-esteem, they expect to do poorly. As a consequence they become anxious which interferes with their ability to concentrate and to prepare for success. Because they can't concentrate their performance is hindered which reinforces their low self-esteem. Page 354 Lawrence Kohlberg gave us an understanding of moral development. He used moral dilemmas to study moral development. Kohlberg contends that people pass through a series of stages in the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgments. He said there are 3 levels and 6 stages involved with moral reasoning. Level l is the Preconventional level. See Table 10.1 Stage 1 and 2 are found in Level 1. In stage 1 the morally correct thing to do is to do whatever keeps you away from punishment.
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