HD notes - HD 101 LECTURE OUTLINES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 101...

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HD 101 LECTURE OUTLINES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 101 SPRING 2010 DR. JASON SCOFIELD Required Text: Human Development Phone: 348-4057 or 348-6158 (HDFS Main Office) E-mail: [email protected] Office: 222 Child Development Research Center 1
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Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION, THEORY, AND RESEARCH INTRODUCTION multidisciplinary study developmental psychology psychology - the scientific study of the mind and behavior development - growth and change across the lifespan general principles - universal changes that occur during development individual differences - differences in the timeline of children biological - changes in physical characteristics cognitive - changes in thoughts, intelligence socioemotional - changes in relationships with others environmental - changes in the external world 2
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THEORY theory - set of propositions (or statements) that describe, explain, and predict a phenomena (behavior) 1. framework for organizing explanation for things we observe 2. make predictions for future behaviors 3. allow for application of concepts to real situations primary orientations of theories (3 basic issues) 1. course of development single course - all children follow a universal course through development multiple courses - children vary in their course of development based on genetic and environmental influences 2. course of development continuity vs discontinuity continuous - same behavior or ability gradually improves with time and experience discontinuous - new abilities develop allowing new behavior to emerge 3
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3. propels development nature vs nurture nature - development (change) is driven by inborn, biological mechanisms nurture - development is driven by environmental influences evaluating theories - R. Thomas Murray 4
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RESEARCH research methods - specific actions taken to directly investigate research hypotheses hypothesis - specific, testable proposition observation - observing the natural occurrence of behavior of a population and drawing conclusions case studies - examining a specific individual or group surveys - a set of questions or statements addressing a particular attitude experiments - establishing a causal relationship (cause and effect) between variables variables - things manipulated or measured in an experiment independent variable - manipulated by the experimenter dependent variable - observed or measured behavior person variables - variables that cannot be assigned randomly 5
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Variable Relationships - correlational and experimental correlational - shows non-causal relationships between variables (both positive and negative) experimental causal relationships between variables troubles - ecological validity, operationalization, control group, random sample, confound Research Designs cross-sectional - children of different ages studied at the same time longitudinal - same children studied across time cohort effect - effects of time of birth and life experience cross-sequential - longitudinal series of cross-sections vertical (columns) - cross-sectional design horizontal (rows) - longitudinal design diagonals - view cohort differences 6
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HD notes - HD 101 LECTURE OUTLINES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 101...

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